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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

and is the main vegetation cover from 2000 to 2900 m over this area ( Anderson et al. 2011 ). Fig . 1. (top) Location of the study site in the Sierra Nevada, southern Spain, and (bottom) DEM of the control area close to the Refugio Poqueira weather station. The black dot indicates the location of the weather station and the black solid line indicates the area covered by the images obtained from TP. a. Weather data The automated weather station located at Refugio Poqueira ( Fig. 1 ) consists of a

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Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini

evapotranspiration fluxes (ET)]. In this way there is the opportunity to increase control points of evapotranspiration so that its accuracy can be improved. Satellite data for their intrinsic nature of spatially distributed information can be used for the internal calibration/validation of distributed hydrological models in each pixel of the domain. This can be achieved with hydrologic modeling based on energy and water balance algorithms in conjunction with remote sensing data, in particular of land surface

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

) ( Fujisada et al. 2005 ). After ground control point selection, epipolar image selection, image matching, and geocoding, the final ASTER DEM is established. Then, ASTER DEM standard data products are resampled with 30-m postings and with Z accuracies generally between 10 and 25-m root-mean-square error (RMSE) ( Toutin and Cheng 2001 ). The version of ASTER Global DEM (GDEM1) in this study was released to the public on 29 June 2009. There are 1.2 million DEM tiles covering land surfaces between 83°N and

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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

the daily updated data (processing versions SCLF1C 504 and 505 and SMUDP2 500 and 551) distributed by the European Space Agency. The preprocessing of the SMOS observations for use in the present study involves several steps. First, we collect all antenna-level SMOS SCLF1C Tb observations for a given grid cell and half orbit. We then apply a quality control to their angular signature by eliminating observations that fall outside of a one-standard-deviation range around the 5° angular moving average

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

for the case of sparse vegetation (70 W m −2 reduction in RMSE) but also an overall improvement of the model performance (40 W m −2 reduction in RMSE). Figure 4 provides a flowchart of explaining acquisition of daily, monthly, and yearly ET by SEBS-SM. The SEBS-SM was run on a daily interval using MODIS input data with 1-km spatial resolution on thermal bands. The model output had some missing days due to either the cloud coverage or unreliable data masked out by the quality control of the

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

–atmosphere interface play an important role in controlling the atmospheric heating and ground warming. It is, therefore, vital to be able to simulate the surface heat fluxes transfer accurately for quantifying and predicting the impact of global warming on the ecologically fragile high-altitude regions, such as the SRYR. Models of the surface heat fluxes transfer between the land surface and atmosphere usually employ the bulk formulations based on the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST; Garratt 1994

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