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  • Data quality control x
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Omar V. Müller, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, and Michael B. Ek

needed (the interpolation scheme is part of the WRF package). In long-term simulations like the ones performed in this study, the spinup time should be enough to achieve an equilibrium that minimizes these errors. b. Model evaluation Control simulations (CTL) were carried out using the USGS land-cover map and its corresponding biophysical properties. Experiments using the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover categories obtained from MODIS data were also carried out, but they

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Mathew Barlow, Benjamin Zaitchik, Shlomit Paz, Emily Black, Jason Evans, and Andrew Hoell

based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 115 , 15 – 40 , doi: 10.1007/s00704-013-0860-x . Seager , R. , N. Harnik , Y. Kushnir , W. Robinson , and J. Miller , 2003 : Mechanisms of hemispherically symmetric climate variability . J. Climate , 16 , 2960 – 2978 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2960:MOHSCV>2.0.CO;2 . Seager , R. , N. Harnik , W. Robinson , Y. Kushnir , M. Ting , H. Huang

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Bradfield Lyon

divergent wind in R1 for the 10 driest MAM and OND seasons. Given issues concerning the quality of the R1 data including possible spurious trends, particularly in the tropics ( Santer et al. 1999 ; Kistler et al. 2001 ; Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Chan and Nigam 2009 ), anomalies for specific events were computed from base periods before the introduction of satellite information (1950–79) and after its assimilation (1980–2009). With this caveat in mind, the composite for the 10 driest years during MAM

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Belen Rodríguez-Fonseca, Elsa Mohino, Carlos R. Mechoso, Cyril Caminade, Michela Biasutti, Marco Gaetani, J. Garcia-Serrano, Edward K. Vizy, Kerry Cook, Yongkang Xue, Irene Polo, Teresa Losada, Leonard Druyan, Bernard Fontaine, Juergen Bader, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Lisa Goddard, Serge Janicot, Alberto Arribas, William Lau, Andrew Colman, M. Vellinga, David P. Rowell, Fred Kucharski, and Aurore Voldoire

. Since forecasts are sensitive to the quality of the data used to initialize the model, an improvement of the initial conditions used over the equatorial and extratropical Atlantic as well as over land is just as essential to improve the forecast quality as the model improvement is. c. Remaining questions The role of the Indian Ocean in forcing interannual rainfall anomalies over West Africa is not clear as some papers have reached contradictory conclusions. The reasons for the nonstationary impact

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

regional mean annual mean PDSI from Dai et al. (2004) for 1979–2005 and 2) the regional mean annual mean soil moisture (top 100 cm) from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, version 2 (GLDAS-2; Rodell et al. 2004 ), for 1979–2010. The numbers across the top of the table (1–10) refer to the regions outlined in Figs. 5 – 8 : 1 is the United States and northern Mexico, 2 is northern South America and Central America, and 3 is central South America ( Fig. 5 ); 4 is West Africa, and 5 is East

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