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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

aircraft data from the Second Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II) field project to demonstrate that drizzle can be an important term in the water budget for marine stratocumulus. Austin et al. (1995) previously showed that local rain rates can be a significant fraction of the surface hydrologic balance—as much as 4–5 times larger than the local surface moisture flux. Drizzle is also an important component of the hydrologic cycle on climate scales, and an intercomparison of

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

. , 54 , 2799 – 2812 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2799:MSPITI>2.0.CO;2 Heckley, W. A. , Kelly G. , and Tiedtke M. , 1990 : On the use of satellite-derived heating rates for data assimilation within the tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 118 , 1743 – 1757 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1743:OTUOSD>2.0.CO;2 Higgins, R. W. , Shi W. , Yarosh E. , and Joyce R. , 2000 : Improved U.S. Precipitation Quality Control System and Analysis . NCEP/Climate Prediction Center Atlas 7, NOAA/NWS, 40 pp . Hou

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

Sea Experiment (BALTEX) and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP), where sophisticated surface radar systems provide nearly continuous spatial coverage. However, these data often have unknown errors, especially in drizzle and snow situations, where reflectivities are very low and are not well suited to climate applications because of quality control issues and short record lengths. Kogan et al. (2007) have conducted a study using Observing System Simulation Experiments to show that the

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

Grande basin frequently confronts water shortages. Numerous “water rights” conflicts must be resolved in the courts, so the Rio Grande is sometimes called a “river of law” ( http://www.ibwc.state.gov/wad/rioproj.htm ). Clearly, competing uses of water resources may eventually deplete the groundwater, cause water quality to deteriorate, and require allocation of surface water ( http://www.lanl.gov/chinawater/documents/wrriogrande.pdf ). Therefore, there is a compelling need for atmospheric and

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

surface and lateral boundary conditions (see Takle et al. 1999 ). Using the Eta Model described above, we first conduct seasonal control simulations for the warm seasons of 1988 and 1993. For each year, we use the data of Global Reanalysis II as the initial atmospheric conditions for five ensemble members launched from the 0000 UTC data of 26–30 April. For all experiments, we integrate the model for more than four months (until early September), longer than most of the integrations of previous

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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

and other countries since the 1930s, and the tendency for an increase in seasonal rainfall to be directly related to an increase in the amount of precipitation falling during extreme events. However, these results are restricted to those countries with high-quality long-term data, which limits a truly global observational analysis. Satellite datasets provide global coverage, but are far too short to be used for trend analyses, and are often too coarse in time and space to capture extremes. However

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Binayak P. Mohanty and Jianting Zhu

parameters, which are a function of soil, vegetation, topography, and other land surface properties. While the quality and availability of remotely sensed vegetation- and topography-related land surface parameters have improved significantly over the last few decades, comparable advances in global soil-related parameters at matching scales have not occurred. In fact, given that soil moisture is known to be a critical climate variable, it could be argued that our current approach of using texture

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

–radiation processes in the UCLA general circulation model. J. Climate , 16 , 3357 – 3370 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3357:POCPIT>2.0.CO;2 Higgins, R. , Shi W. , Yarosh E. , and Joyce R. , cited . 2000 : Improved United States Precipitation Quality Control and Analysis . Atlas 7, NCEP/Climate Prediction Center. [Available online at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/research_papers/ncep_cpc_atlas/7/index.html .] . Hong, S. , and Pan H. , 1998 : Convective trigger function for a mass flux cumulus

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