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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

, 19 , 643 – 674 . Dentener , F. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 6 , 4321 – 4344 . Donner , L. J. , 1993 : A cumulus parameterization including mass fluxes, vertical momentum dynamics, and mesoscale effects . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 889 – 906 . Donner , L. J. , and V. T. Phillips , 2003 : Boundary-layer control on convective available potential energy

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

direct comparisons to observed fields than 1990 or 1860 control simulations. Additionally, historical simulations represent a key element of the IPCC climate assessment. However, the historically forced simulations present nontrivial and unresolved difficulties related to model drift. We raise two points here in this regard. There are insufficient 1860 ocean observations to directly initialize such “preindustrial” climate simulations. Hence, we initialize the ocean based on present conditions

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