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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

-Range Weather Forecasts ( ECMWF 1989 ) 12-hourly, 2.5° × 2.5° resolution operational 10-m wind analysis and another using 2000–02 wind data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), made available by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Microwave scatterometry gives us the ability to explore basin-scale modes of vector wind variability in an unprecedented manner. We use NASA/JPL’s QuikSCAT level-3 satellite vector wind product, with each vector

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Debasis Sengupta, Retish Senan, B. N. Goswami, and Jérôme Vialard

annual cycle from the climatological data of Levitus (1982) , with an e -folding time scale of 10 days. Several model runs or experiments were performed; a list is given in Table 1 . In the control run, or the QuikSCAT simulation, the model is forced by the July 1999–December 2003 3-day wind stress obtained from 0.25° × 0.25° QuikSCAT vector wind data using a constant drag coefficient ( C d ) of 1.2 × 10 −3 . This wind stress field has almost no gaps due to limited satellite swath (about 1500 km

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Hae-Kyung Lee Drbohlav, Silvio Gualdi, and Antonio Navarra

, M. E. , and Coauthors , 1998 : World Ocean Database 1998: Documentation and quality control. Version 2.1. National Oceanographic Data Center Internal Rep. 14, 117 pp . Cox , M. D. , 1984 : A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 1, 143 pp . Derber , J. , and A. Rosati , 1989 : A global oceanic data assimilation system. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 19 , 1333 – 1347 . Fischer , A. , P. Terray , E. Guilyardi , S. Gualdi , and P

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

research cruise vessels provide important benchmark time series for quantifying regional biases in the gridded heat flux products ( Weller and Anderson 1996 ; Weller et al. 1998 ; Josey 2001 ; Wang and McPhaden 2001 ; Sun et al. 2003 ). The Indian Ocean is a poorly sampled region. Different data management policies imposed by different countries further complicate the availability of the already limited data sources. For this study, we obtained only two sets of high quality in situ flux

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

examine the potential predictability, ensemble simulations are conducted. Finally, to understand the dynamics involved and the sensitivity of the results to the AGCMs’ basic state, experiments are performed with a linear version of one of the AGCMs. In general, our results from the AGCMs confirm the recent findings from other studies. The salient new results of the present study are (i) local SST anomalies control precipitation variations over the SWIO and (ii) the root-mean-square error in the 500

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

undergo physical processes such as diffusion, turbulence, or mixing. Tracers are widely used in the comprehensive oceanographic study and water mass analysis ( Jensen 2001 , 2003 ). This paper is also intended to find the effects of the ITF over the Indian Ocean. By contrasting a control model run with a “closed throughflow” run, Hirst and Godfrey (1993) , Murtugudde et al. (1998) , and Wajsowicz (2002) have concluded that the ITF gives SST prints over the Indian Ocean at the immediate entrance

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