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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

elements of , based on the residuals between 3-hourly modeled values of NEE and EC flux tower data. Long-term data series of continuous and quality-checked turbulent flux measurements are available at three locations in our domain and represent the Douglas fir forests in the Coast Range (US-MRf), the shrubland and grassland areas of the Oregon High Desert region (ONG), and the eastern Cascade Mountains dominated by ponderosa pine forests (OMT; see also Table 1 ). EC measurements were available

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

. 2008 ). It may be that the SST-forced variation in Sahel rainfall is controlled by different mechanisms, and other forcing besides SST (e.g., land surface processes) could play a role in controlling the rainfall variability ( Biasutti et al. 2008 ). Figure 2. The correlation coefficients of detrended SST at each grid point in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during (a) spring and (b) summer with detrended time series of summer rainfall area averaged over the Sahel from 1982 to 2006. The contour is

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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

CZs ( Liu et al. 2016 ) shown in Figure 1 . For the CZs with odd numbers (areas shaded in red), the precipitation during maize-growing season cannot meet the water requirement of maize, while for the CZs with even numbers (blue shading), the amount of precipitation during maize-growing season can meet the water requirement of maize (see Figure 1 for climate zone names and spatial patterns for CZs). 2.2. Climate, crop, soil, and management data Climatic information includes daily maximum and

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

surroundings as a consequence of urban/rural thermal energy budget differences ( Oke 1982 ). The magnitude and characteristics of the UHI are controlled by several factors. In general, UHI decreases with increasing wind speed and cloud cover, while it increases with city size and population density; it is also stronger during summer and, typically, the nighttime, depending on location ( Arnfield 2003 ). Even though the general UHI pattern is similar in all urban environments, each city is exposed to

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

precipitation quality control system and analysis. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center Atlas 7, NOAA/NWS/CPC, 40 pp. [Available online at .] Holton , J. R. , 1967 : The diurnal boundary layer wind oscillation above sloping terrain . Tellus , 19A , 199 – 205 , doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1967.tb01473.x . Hong , S. Y. , Y. Noh , and J. Dudhia , 2006 : A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment

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