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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

.5067/GPMGV/OLYMPEX/PLUVIO/DATA301 . 10.5067/GPMGV/OLYMPEX/PLUVIO/DATA301 Purnell , D. J. , and D. J. Kirshbaum , 2018 : Synoptic control over orographic precipitation distributions during the Olympics Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 1023 – 1044 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0267.1 Richard , E. , N. Chaumerliac , J. F. Mahfouf , and E. C. Nickerson , 1987 : Numerical simulation of orographic enhancement of rain with a mesoscale

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Ousmane O. Sy, Simone Tanelli, Stephen L. Durden, Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Kwo-Sen Kuo, Noppasin Niamsuwan, Robert M. Beauchamp, V. Chandrasekar, Manuel Vega, and Michael P. Johnson

the uncertainties associated with radar retrievals of ice microphysics are affected by a number of challenges: the scarcity of viable datasets, their delicate quality control and collocation, interpretation of measurement errors, and the interplay between particle mass and shape, which affect the scattering properties at various wavelengths. “Ideal” retrieval conditions are usually met only in fully controlled numerical experiments, or in field campaigns where remote sensing and in situ sampling

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Robert Conrick, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, and Clifford F. Mass

observing stations used in this study, including the NPOL radar, the PARSIVEL 2 units (blue circles), PARSIVEL 2 + 2DVD units (red squares), and MRR locations (stars). The black dashed line represents the 49.9° NPOL RHI scan that is used to develop retrievals. Distances from the NPOL radar to each station are also noted next to the station name. NPOL data underwent extensive quality control and data filtering following the conclusion of OLYMPEX ( Wolff et al. 2017 ). The quality control process

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Stephanie M. Wingo, Walter A. Petersen, Patrick N. Gatlin, Charanjit S. Pabla, David A. Marks, and David B. Wolff

radar volume to a full grid with an identical center location and horizontal and vertical grid spacing as the SIMBA column grid. Total vertical extent of the full grid is set to 15 km, and total horizontal extent is based on the maximum range of the radar. For GPM GV quality-controlled data (NPOL and NEXRAD), the discrete hydrometeor identification (ID) values (HID in Table 1 ) are set into the new grid via a nearest neighbor approach. Data fields for each ground-based scanning radar are presently

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

observing period to ensure optimal performance ( Houze et al. 2017 ) and were within or near the Quinault Valley on the windward side of the Olympic Mountains. Following OLYMPEX, data were extensively reviewed by project personnel. Data that failed the quality control checks described below were removed. For microphysical evaluations, we analyzed the median volume diameter 2 D 0 , liquid water content (LWC; the rainwater mass mixing ratio), and the normalized rain intercept parameter 3 N w from the

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David J. Purnell and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

calculated over all hourly samples. Fig . 7. Composites of mean retrieved precipitation rate during (a) WF, (b) WS, and (c) PF events. As a second verification, we compare the retrievals to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage-IV product, a mosaic of regional multisensor analyses generated by the NWS River Forecast Centers (RFCs) ( Lin and Mitchell 2005 ). Each RFC uses multiple quality-control measures, including correcting for terrain beam blocking, quality-controlling low

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Qian Cao, Thomas H. Painter, William Ryan Currier, Jessica D. Lundquist, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

rain gauges were quality controlled by the NASA OLYMPEX group. Because these NASA gauges were dual-platform tipping buckets, we used the average of each pair of gauges if they both had no quality flags for malfunctioning or possible ice/snow and if their daily precipitation differed by less than 10% for days when precipitation exceeded 10 mm; otherwise, the precipitation data were marked as invalid. We performed a simple quality control (QC) for all gauges to screen for outliers, including

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

; Yuter and Houze 1995 ) and gridded maps of reflectivity height and coverage. The CFADs were constructed by binning the quality-controlled Ku reflectivity data into two-dimensional histograms of reflectivity from 0 to 50 dB Z in 1-dB intervals between heights above sea level of 1.5 and 8.0 km in 0.25-km intervals. Each CFAD is normalized by the maximum bin at any level after correcting the sample size for terrain obstruction at lower levels. The terrain correction primarily affects the four lowest

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Aaron R. Naeger, Brian A. Colle, Na Zhou, and Andrew Molthan

Nov. WRF 3- and 1-km grid locations shown in red and OLYMPEX field site denoted by red ×. Colorado State University (CSU) sounding launches at the NPOL site evaluated the thermodynamic and dynamic structure within the model ( Rutledge et al. 2018 ). We also use quality-controlled precipitation measurements from the NASA tipping-bucket rain gauges ( Petersen et al. 2017c ) and Pluvio-2 weighting gauges ( Petersen et al. 2017a ), which are denoted by “N” and “P” in Fig. 1a , for validating the

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Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Norman B. Wood, Guosheng Liu, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Michael Poellot, and Chuntao Liu

about 18–20 dB Z at Ka band and 14 dB Z at W band. Fig . 3. Data obtained from collocations of the UND Citation in situ aircraft and the NASA DC-8 with APR-3 on board during the OLYMPEX field program: (a) rain regions and (b) ice regions. The Ku-band data are on the abscissa; Ka- or W-band data are on the ordinate. The W-band data are likely to be significantly attenuated in rain, less so in ice. As a check on the quality of the PSD sizing and mass–dimensional relationships for OLYMPEX, Fig. 4

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