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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

and running the WRF simulation. The simulation was conducted on the Cheyenne Supercomputer, which is supported by NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory and sponsored by the National Science Foundation. We acknowledge NCAR for the WRF software and for archiving and quality controlling many of the OWLeS datasets. The Center for Severe Weather Research provided the DOW7 radar data, level II NEXRAD data were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Information, hourly

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

Weather Research along the Lake Ontario shoreline during IOP2b, but data quality was poor over Tug Hill so the data are not used in this study. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) research aircraft also collected transects of W-band cloud radar data across the lake-effect system for ~2.5 h during IOP2b. We do not examine the W-band cloud radar dataset here, but direct the reader to Welsh et al. (2016) for a multiradar analysis of IOP2b and to Bergmaier et al. (2017) for an analysis of the

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

; Löffler-Mang et al. 1999 ; Peters et al. 2002 ). Maahn and Kollias (2012) developed a postprocessing algorithm for the MRR raw data that improves noise removal, velocity dealiasing, and sensitivity. Importantly, this algorithm allows for the collection of high-quality profiles of equivalent radar reflectivity factor , Doppler radial velocity , and spectral width in both rain and snow. We apply the Maahn and Kollias (2012) algorithm to all of our MRR data. Data are also averaged to 60-s time

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

(IOPs) to gain an unprecedented dataset on LeSs ( Table 1 ). Many of the common locations for the surface-based facilities during IOPs are shown in Fig. 1a ; aircraft flight patterns are illustrated in Figs. 1b–d . Observations collected by these facilities, as well as those taken operationally in the United States and Canada, have been integrated, quality controlled, and archived at the UCAR Earth Observing Laboratory ( www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/owles ). Table 1. Major observational

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Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

profiles. Following the field campaign, the sounding data were quality controlled and archived by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL). 3. The IOP2b event: Background, horizontal structure, and environmental conditions IOP2b took place from 2300 UTC 10 December to 0200 UTC 12 December 2013 ( Kristovich et al. 2017 ), during which a strong LLAP system was present over eastern Lake Ontario and areas downwind of the lake, including Tug Hill ( Fig. 1b ). This

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

ultimately quite weak (<5 m s −1 ). This method helps to correct for the bias and allows the real along-track wind component to be more easily seen. d. Additional data sources Three Vaisala radiosondes were released by one of the OWLeS teams stationed in Stanley, New York (about 10 km west of the northern tip of SL; Fig. 1b ), between 1441 and 1730 UTC. The sounding measurements were collected at 1 Hz and quality controlled by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing

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Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

help running it. The OWLeS data were gathered and made possible by a number of PIs and students working on the program. The instrumentation was also graciously hosted on the property of Jim, Cindy, John, and Cheryl Cheney and Diane and Gerhardt Brosch. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers, whose suggestions greatly improved the quality of this manuscript. Any opinions or findings do not necessarily represent those of the National Science Foundation or the University of Utah. REFERENCES Alcott

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Jake P. Mulholland, Jeffrey Frame, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Scott M. Steiger, Karen A. Kosiba, and Joshua Wurman

. Rev. , 134 , 311 – 335 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3065.1 . 10.1175/MWR3065.1 Barnes , S. L. , 1964 : A technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map analysis . J. Appl. Meteor. , 3 , 396 – 409 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0396:ATFMDI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0396:ATFMDI>2.0.CO;2 Bell , M. M. , W. C. Lee , C. A. Wolff , and H. Cai , 2013 : A Solo-based automated quality control algorithm for airborne tail Doppler radar data . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol

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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

, using a test rejection level of 0.05 (see text for further information). The third column was computed from independent data using cross validation (explained in text). A (−) sign indicates the coefficient for that variable is negative; for thermal advection, a (−) sign indicates a positive relationship between InPen 20 and CAA at that level. We next investigated whether the predictive ability of DTAP h could be captured by a simpler predictor that nonetheless controlled much of its variability

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