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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

AIRS data only from channels completely unaffected by clouds, we use quality-controlled temperature retrievals, also obtained under partly cloudy conditions, following Susskind et al. (2006) and Susskind (2007) . Despite the widespread general assumption that clear-sky radiances are the best way to assimilate AIRS data, Reale et al. (2009) have shown retrievals under partly cloudy conditions to provide better analyses of a tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean than the clear-sky radiance

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Zhaoxia Pu, Xuanli Li, and Juanzhen Sun

around the storm center at a horizontal resolution of 2 km. The NOAA/Hurricane Research Division (HRD) has conducted an automatic quality control for these data and derived the horizontal wind components u and υ from radial velocity data. More detailed descriptions of the retrieved algorithm and quality-control techniques can be found in Gamache 2005 and Gao et al. 1999 . Figure 1 illustrates the samples of airborne Doppler radar reflectivity and the u and v wind components for Hurricane

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

trough, within the trough passage, and to the rear of the trough. Sounding data (up to four times daily during the life cycle of wave 5) was collected at all three sites corresponding to the radar locations [Praia—Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) radar; Dakar—(NPOL) radar; and Niamey—Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) radar]. These data were quality controlled by the principal AMMA–NAMMA investigators for each sounding system. Examination of upper-air sounding data at each

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Scott A. Braun, Michael T. Montgomery, Kevin J. Mallen, and Paul D. Reasor

“vortical” hot tower route to tropical cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 355 – 386 . Noh , Y. , W. G. Cheon , S. Y. Hong , and S. Raasch , 2003 : Improvement of the K -profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 107 , 401 – 427 . Nolan , D. S. , 2007 : What is the trigger for tropical cyclogenesis? Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 56 , 241 – 266 . Portabella , M. , and A. Stoffelen , 2001 : Rain detection and quality

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Stephen R. Guimond, Gerald M. Heymsfield, and F. Joseph Turk

sampling geometries onboard the high-altitude ER-2. d. Flight-level data Quality-controlled (“ten-second files”; sampling frequency of 0.1 and 1.0 Hz) flight-level winds from two NOAA P-3 aircraft and several United States Air Force (USAF) WC-130 aircraft provided by the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) were used to analyze the storm-relative, tangential wind over the life cycle of Dennis. Detailed descriptions of the data processing and instrumentation onboard these aircraft can be found in

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Wallace Hogsett and Da-Lin Zhang

troublesome for studying important energetic processes that occur in the inner-core convective regions, which are not conducive to in situ measurements. However, the ability of mesoscale models to reproduce the structures and evolution of TCs and provide dense, high-quality data is continually increasing. For example, Tuleya and Kurihara (1975) used the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) TC model to simulate an idealized TC, and they calculated budgets of mean and eddy KE, as well as LE, at

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

multinested (36/12/4/1.33) km grids captures well main characteristics of the storm during its life cycle from the early genesis to the dissipation stages without bogusing any data into the model initial conditions. Both the observations and model simulation show the merger of two mesovortices (hereafter V 1 and V 2 ) associated with the ITCZ breakdowns during the formation of TS Eugene (see Fig. 1a ). Here the merging period begins as V 2 ’s southerly flow decreases in intensity and coverage with the

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

remains elusive because of the lack of high-resolution, quality data over tropical oceans. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted the Tropical Cloud System Processes (TCSP) field campaign in July 2005 using various state-of-the-art observing systems, including aircraft measurements and satellite observations ( Halverson et al. 2007 ). The purposes of the present study are to (i) document the full life cycle of a TS from its pregenesis to dissipation stages over a

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Chuntao Liu, Earle R. Williams, Edward J. Zipser, and Gary Burns

( Iguchi et al. 2000 ) and 2A23 ( Awaka et al. 1998 ) products. To provide the thermodynamic environment for these PFs, vertical profiles of temperature, geopotential heights for each PF with more than four PR pixels (>75 km 2 ) are interpolated from 6-hourly NCEP reanalysis data ( Kistler et al. 2001 ). Although there are nearly three-quarters of PFs with less than four PR pixels, their total contribution to rainfall is less than 5% over 35°S–35°N. To control the data volume for easy access, the

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

high-quality data sets in this study. We are greatly appreciative of Professor Ed Zipser of the University of Utah for his significant effort leading many of the field experiments used in this paper and for his comments on the paper. We are also appreciative of two anonymous reviewers who provided constructive comments on the manuscript, and to Dr. Dan Cecil of University of Alabama in Huntsville for corrections on the manuscript. REFERENCES Adler , R. F. , and R. A. Mack , 1986

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