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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

al. (1998) , where T sim ′ = monthly simulated stream temperatures (°C), T meas ′ = monthly measured stream temperatures (°C), and n = number of data points. c. The global water quality model WorldQual and the projection of climate change on water temperatures and first-order decay rates To assess the future state of aquatic ecosystems and to determine the suitability of surface water supply for different water users, a new continental-scale model of water quality (WorldQual; F. Voß et al

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

) product ( Weedon et al. 2010 ). This contrasts with the work of Ngo-Duc et al. (2005) and Sheffield et al. (2006) , where global unidirectional bias related to the NCAR–NCEP reanalysis necessitated correction via the SRB product. Comparison with selected FLUXNET data ( Weedon et al. 2010 ) also showed that it was not necessary to make a monthly bias correction of the WFD downward longwave radiation using the SRB3 quality-controlled longwave (QCLW) product (see http

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

.5° resolution, and then they were bias corrected at 0.5° with the WFD. Especially in regions with large orographic gradients, the higher resolution contains features not present in the low-resolution GCM data, such as orographic precipitation. Note that the accuracy of the bias correction is always limited by the quality of the observational data used. Consequently, bias-corrected GCM data may be less reliable in data-sparse regions. Furthermore, measurement of small precipitation amounts is generally more

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Richard Harding, Martin Best, Eleanor Blyth, Stefan Hagemann, Pavel Kabat, Lena M. Tallaksen, Tanya Warnaars, David Wiberg, Graham P. Weedon, Henny van Lanen, Fulco Ludwig, and Ingjerd Haddeland

. , 12 , 900 – 912 . Strzepek, K. , and Boehlert B. , 2010 : Competition for water for the food system . Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London , B365 , 2927 – 2940 . Trenberth, K. E. , Smith L. , Qian T. , Dai A. , and Fasullo J. , 2007 : Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 758 – 769 . Van Vliet, M. T. H. , and Zwolsman J. J. G. , 2008 : Impact of summer droughts on the water quality of the Meuse

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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

. , McKenzie A. A. , and Sene K. J. , 1999 : A grid-based approach to water scarcity estimates for eastern and southern Africa . Water Resour. Manage. , 13 , 85 – 115 , doi:10.1023/A:1008025703712 . Merz, R. , and Blöschl G. , 2009 : Process controls on the statistical flood moments—A data based analysis . Hydrol. Processes , 23 , 675 – 696 , doi:10.1002/hyp.7168 . Milly, P. C. D. , Dunne K. A. , and Vecchia A. V. , 2005 : Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water

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Kerstin Stahl, Lena M. Tallaksen, Lukas Gudmundsson, and Jens H. Christensen

the European FRIEND project, which is part of the FRIEND initiative of the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme. It includes records from relatively small catchments that represent local conditions and relatively natural flows. The database was recently updated to 2004 ( Stahl et al. 2008 ) and is now held at the GRDC ( http://grdc.bafg.de ), which also manages data requests. The selection for each country was done by the national agencies, which were also responsible for data quality

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Jens H. Christensen, Fahad Saeed, Pankaj Kumar, Shakeel Asharaf, Bodo Ahrens, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Daniela Jacob, and Stefan Hagemann

-resolution climate simulations has consisted of the use of a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale a GCM simulation or a reanalysis (e.g., Giorgi 2006 ). By using a domain covering a certain region of the globe, the RCMs are able to efficiently perform a climate simulation at a horizontal resolution of typically 50 km or less. While being controlled by the large-scale boundary conditions taken from a GCM or a reanalysis, the RCMs take advantage of their higher resolution to improve the

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D. Gerten, J. Heinke, H. Hoff, H. Biemans, M. Fader, and K. Waha

; Gerten et al. 2007 ). Water requirements and water consumption—and thereby the CWP—of irrigated and rain-fed CFTs are distinguished, with an explicit distinction of GW and BW contributions on irrigated land. We assumed that the irrigation water requirements of the CFTs—as controlled by their water limitation and by country-wide irrigation efficiencies—can always be fulfilled (see Rost et al. 2008 ). River flow directions were determined as in the WATCH–Global Water System Project (GWSP) Model

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