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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

1. Introduction As of this writing, nearly 7000 ARM Climate Research Facility data fields from 400 instruments are monitored for data quality control on a daily basis. This chapter reviews the history and evolution of ARM Program data quality assurance since the beginning of the program and describes the processes in place today. It also provides advice to those who collect field data, especially in an operational context. ARM’s infrastructure was charged to produce data of “known and

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Raymond McCord and Jimmy Voyles

1. Introduction Every observationally based research program needs a way to collect data from instruments, convert the data from its raw format into a more usable format, apply quality control, process it into higher-order data products, store the data, and make the data available to its scientific community. This data flow is illustrated pictorially in Fig. 11-1 . These are the basic requirements of any scientific data system, and ARM’s data system would have to address these requirements and

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

the three-dimensional structure of the atmospheric column on the scale of a GCM grid cell Combined with the requirement to gather data to address these two questions neatly summarized by Ackerman et al. (2016 , chapter 3) above, plus the requirement for real-time data acquisition and quality control, a set of measurement requirements important to deployment planning could be specified: Continuous (24/7) measurements Measurements of solar and infrared radiation, both spectrally resolved and

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impossible to meet ARM’s objectives, however, without obtaining a large volume of detailed in situ measurements, some of which will have to be acquired from manned or unmanned aircraft; in addition, high-quality satellite observations are needed to measure the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation. To obtain the requisite in situ and surface-based remote sensing data, ARM is making measurements, over a period of years, at three sites: the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site; the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

(2016 , chapter 2), the Experiment Center functioned as the data acquisition focal point for the program, acquiring data from the ARM sites as well as external sources. Early on, the Experiment Center was tasked with virtually all things data (with the exception of the archival of the data), including ascertaining data continuity and quality. As data streams from sophisticated instruments began to be received and technically involved data processing and quality control became required, this had to

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

sequestration of AMF1 data in China for nearly the entire deployment, but a more restrictive limitation was the prohibition of any Internet connectivity to the AMF1 instrumentation. This precluded the usual ARM quality assurance process. Shortly after the AMF1 began operating in China, its cloud radar failed and was shipped back to the United States for repair. As a result, only two months of cloud radar data were collected during the autumn of 2008. Sadly, observations of the low stratus liquid clouds

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

variability cannot be detected in a dataset if the climate signal is less than the measurement biases. These biases must be reduced using specific procedures. The data from each APRO must be reprocessed carefully to include better quality control and better retrieval algorithms, to make use of instrument synergy, to reduce biases, and to evaluate uncertainties and spatial representativeness. Further, APRO data must be harmonized in temporal and vertical grids and must follow naming conventions and

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useful if radiometers were included with spectral sensitivity similar to those chosen for use on the Earth Observing System (EOS). The strategy for the broadband radiometric instrumentation is to duplicate exactly at the base site the complement of instrumentation selected for the extended sites. This instrumentation will support calibration and facilitate quality control. The radiometric instrumentation at the extended stations is discussed below. Measurement of the meteorological conditions

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

precipitation mode and was put into operation within the MMCRs at the SGP and TWP sites over the period from mid-2004 through mid-2006. After a period of experimentation, during which time the precipitation mode data of the MMCR’s with the innovation were corrupted by timing issues, this approach was implemented successfully, and the quality of the precipitation mode data was vastly improved. Leaving a switch closed in the precipitation mode when the radar was receiving atmospheric returns is a clever, but

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

this document repeats or summarizes material contained in them. The objectives of the ICRCCM studies during 1982–88 were the following: to develop a better understanding of the differences in radiation model approaches, to understand how these differences affect model sensitivity, to evaluate the effects of simplifying assumptions, to evaluate the ability of the radiation models to simulate the real atmosphere, and to evaluate the effect of using different sources of spectral line data in the

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