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Scot M. Loehrer, Todd A. Edmands, and James A. Moore

One of the most important datasets to come from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) is the most complete, high-resolution upper-air sounding dataset ever collected in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Office of Field Project Support&UCAR/OFPS (recently combined with the UCAR/Joint International Climate Projects Planning Office and renamed the Joint Office for Science Support); was given the responsibility of processing, quality controlling, and archiving the dataset. OFPS, in consultation with the TOGA COARE scientific community, developed a four-stage process to provide the community with a thoroughly quality controlled dataset.

The TOGA COARE sounding dataset includes over 14 000 soundings, collected from 14 countries, in over 20 different original formats. The first OFPS processing step was the conversion of all soundings to a single, easy to use format, the OFPS quality control format. The second stage was a series of automated internal consistency checks on each sounding. This stage was particularly important as it directly led to the improvement of several of the datasets. The third step was a visual examination of each sounding to provide another layer of internal consistency checks, for dewpoint and wind in particular. The final process used spatial quality control checks to put each station into context with its neighboring stations as well as the network as a whole. These checks provided statistics from which both systematic and individual sounding problems could be determined. Finally, some derived sounding parameters such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) were calculated for each sounding. The CAPE calculations provided a quick method to qualitatively examine the high-resolution sounding data for low-level humidity problems. A composite dataset of all soundings at a uniform vertical resolution of 5 hPa was created to provide the community with a sounding dataset that has been found to be useful in certain modeling studies.

The processed TOGA COARE sounding data, as well as statistical output from the OFPS spatial quality control procedures, are available on-line via the Internet using the World Wide Web (WWW) through the OFPS data management system. Access via the WWW allows a full range of on-line data browsing and ordering capabilities.

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Junhong (June) Wang, Kate Young, Terry Hock, Dean Lauritsen, Dalton Behringer, Michael Black, Peter G. Black, James Franklin, Jeff Halverson, John Molinari, Leon Nguyen, Tony Reale, Jeff Smith, Bomin Sun, Qing Wang, and Jun A. Zhang

. Such heterogeneity between datasets hinders composite analysis of TCs and limits the application of the dropsonde data for broader scientific use. DATA SOURCES, QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL, AND VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS. Raw dropsonde data for this study were collected during NOAA hurricane reconnaissance and surveillance flights from 1996 to 2012 and were obtained from the NOAA/Hurricane Research Division (HRD) online GPS-dropsonde data archive ( www

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Catherine L. Muller, Lee Chapman, C.S.B. Grimmond, Duick T. Young, and Xiao-Ming Cai

within urban areas). These standard guidelines contain essential and detailed information relevant to making meteorological observations, including details on requirements for each variable, siting and exposure, instrument calibrations, operating practices, data management and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) techniques. However, it is difficult and often inappropriate to conform to standard WMO guidelines when siting equipment in cities, since there are numerous obstructions to airflow and

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Steven M. Quiring, Trent W. Ford, Jessica K. Wang, Angela Khong, Elizabeth Harris, Terra Lindgren, Daniel W. Goldberg, and Zhongxia Li

harmonized and quality-controlled soil moisture data for scientists and decision makers. For example, these data have utility for 1) improving our understanding of land–atmosphere interactions ( Ford et al. 2014b , 2015a , b ); 2) developing seasonal to decadal climate forecasting tools ( Ford and Quiring 2013 , 2014a ); 3) calibrating, validating, and improving the physical parameterizations in regional and global land surface models ( Xia et al. 2015a , b ); 4) developing and validating satellite

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Stefan Brönnimann, Rob Allan, Christopher Atkinson, Roberto Buizza, Olga Bulygina, Per Dahlgren, Dick Dee, Robert Dunn, Pedro Gomes, Viju O. John, Sylvie Jourdain, Leopold Haimberger, Hans Hersbach, John Kennedy, Paul Poli, Jouni Pulliainen, Nick Rayner, Roger Saunders, Jörg Schulz, Alexander Sterin, Alexander Stickler, Holly Titchner, Maria Antonia Valente, Clara Ventura, and Clive Wilkinson

encompassed 1) data rescue for in situ observations, their quality control, and provision of metadata; 2) satellite data rescue, reprocessing, and intercalibration; and 3) provision of boundary constraints and external forcing. SURFACE METEOROLOGICAL DATA. Observations of pressure and wind and, sometimes, temperature at the surface are assimilated into reanalyses. Other surface observations, such as those of precipitation, have so far mostly been used in reanalysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the

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Lee Chapman, Catherine L. Muller, Duick T. Young, Elliott L. Warren, C. S. B. Grimmond, Xiao-Ming Cai, and Emma J. S. Ferranti

, Winterbourne 2 at the University of Birmingham. Given the size of the network, maximizing quality-assurance/quality-control (QA/QC) automation is key; otherwise, erroneous information may be missed and incorrectly archived ( Fiebrich et al. 2010 ; Menne et al. 2012 ). The QA/QC decision tree utilized is similar to the Oklahoma Mesonet ( Fiebrich et al. 2010 ) and follows the common tests and procedures ( Table 3 ), whereby data are not deleted but flags are generated ( Table 4 ), ultimately leaving the

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Else J. M. Van Den Besselaar, Albert M. G. Klein Tank, Gerard Van Der Schrier, Mariama S. Abass, Omar Baddour, Aryan F.V. Van Engelen, Andrea Freire, Peer Hechler, Bayu Imbang Laksono, Iqbal, Rudmer Jilderda, Andre Kamga Foamouhoue, Arie Kattenberg, Robert Leander, Rodney Martínez Güingla, Albert S. Mhanda, Juan José Nieto, Sunaryo, Aris Suwondo, Yunus S. Swarinoto, and Gé Verver

meteorological services and universities throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Mediterranean countries. It aims to realize a sustainable operational system for gathering, archiving, and disseminating climate data, with the added benefits of quality control and data analysis. Contributing institutions provide validated daily series for up to 12 meteorological variables ( Table 1 ). ECA&D uses these data to generate a suite of derived information products—which are updated monthly—for use in climate

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A. J. Illingworth, D. Cimini, A. Haefele, M. Haeffelin, M. Hervo, S. Kotthaus, U. Löhnert, P. Martinet, I. Mattis, E. J. O’Connor, and R. Potthast

computed for a 1-yr dataset from a prototype network of six MWRs ( De Angelis et al. 2017 ). Within this network, standardized calibration procedures and data life cycle had been implemented so that quality-controlled data were collected. The six prototype network stations are located at Cabauw, Netherlands (51.97°N, 4.93°E); Jülich, Germany (50.91°N, 6.41°E); Leipzig, Germany (51.35°N, 12.43°E); Lindenberg, Germany (52.21°N, 14.12°E); Palaiseau, France (48.40°N, 2.36°E); and Payerne, Switzerland (46

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Andrea Lammert, Akio Hansen, Felix Ament, Susanne Crewell, Galina Dick, Verena Grützun, Henk Klein-Baltink, Volker Lehmann, Andreas Macke, Bernhard Pospichal, Wiebke Schubotz, Patric Seifert, Erasmia Stamnas, and Bjorn Stevens

others to adopt the methods, quality control procedures, and data description methods we developed, to expand the archive for use by future generations. HD(CP) 2 HD(CP) 2 is a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is a cooperative project with more than 100 members from 19 different participating institutions and universities all over Germany. HD(CP) 2 employs in total about 35 postdocs and 12 Ph.D. students that are involved in the six modules that make up

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Gottfried Kirchengast, Thomas Kabas, Armin Leuprecht, Christoph Bichler, and Heimo Truhetz

, their processing by the WegenerNet Processing System (WPS), and the presentation of data products to users via the data portal are shown at an overall structure level in Fig. 3 . The WPS is the core system in this context. Table 2 summarizes scientific–technical details of the data levels involved and of the main processing steps, from receiving and archiving the raw data via quality control and data product generation to weather and climate products ready for the data portal. The WPS is a fairly

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