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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

2004, the Japan–Russia–United States international joint study of the Sea of Okhotsk from 1998 to 2004, and the Japan Oceanographic Data Center. For WOD2001 , we adopted profiles at observation levels at which both temperature and salinity were available. The spatial coverage was the entire North Pacific (15°–65°N, 135°–120°W), a larger coverage than that produced by Nakanowatari et al. (2007) . The quality control and gridded method adopted in this study were similar to those of earlier studies

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, and Theodore Durland

extent, the divergent sampling bias of the DFAS_RF method. The final question is whether the uncoincident component in the AFDS_RF divergence is controlled by the uncoincident mean wind components themselves or by the ratios of the number of points multiplying them. To shed some light on this question, Fig. 14h shows the divergence of the mean uncoincident winds without the factors involving the number of data points [i.e., ]. This field has been divided by 20 to fit the color scale of the other

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

2005 ), which have been removed through subjective quality control by Y. Tanimoto of Hokkaido University ( Tanimoto et al. 1997 ; Iwasaka and Hanawa 1990 ). Fig . 1. (a) Standard deviation of DJF-mean SST (°C; color) for the period 1960–2006, based on quality-controlled 1° × 1° gridded ICOADS data prepared by Y. Tanimoto. Grid boxes for which data are missing over more than half of the period are not colored. The brown trapezoid marks the SAFZ region. (b) Time series of the 5-yr moving

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

with 0.25° horizontal resolution and time step of 15 min and a (relatively) low-resolution (LR) version with 1° horizontal resolution and time step of 30 min. All parameterization schemes are the same between the HR and LR. Aside from the impacts of linearly interpolating the HR initial and boundary data to the LR grid (slight differences in regions of large topography), all other facets of the two models are identical. For both configurations, a 25-member ensemble of control simulations is created

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, Dudley B. Chelton, and Eric Skyllingstad

and 2b , respectively. In this figure, the isoline of the time-mean QuikSCAT convergence of −0.25 × 10 −5 s −1 shows the approximate location of the GSCZ. It was never reconciled how this hypothesized mechanism of ocean–atmosphere coupling interacted with the location of the storm track. This analysis aims to shed some insight into this question. In this study, we analyze satellite data and simulations from an atmospheric model to investigate how synoptic weather variability affects the time

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

-stationary response. Section 5 evaluates the influence of initial and lateral boundary conditions. Section 6 looks for evidence of the nonlinear circulation response from a reanalysis dataset. Section 7 is a summary and a discussion. 2. Model, data, and analysis a. Model This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ), with the domain covering most of the Northern Hemisphere on a polar stereographic projection at 40-km resolution ( Fig. 2a ). There are 28 terrain

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

( Held et al. 1989 ; Lau 1997 ; Cassou and Terray 2001 ; Shapiro et al. 2001 ). The Hadley cell contributes as well to the midlatitude variability through the interaction between the subtropical jet stream and the midlatitude eddy-driven jet (e.g., Lee and Kim 2003 ; Michel and Rivière 2014 ). The stratosphere is another element affecting the storm-track variability through mechanisms such as the so-called downward control (e.g., Kidston et al. 2015 ). In the midlatitudes, large-scale SST

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

fluxes are also absent. Other WRF options used here include implicit vertical velocity damping in the upper 5 km to absorb gravity waves ( Klemp et al. 2008 ) and sixth-order horizontal viscosity to control computational noise. The initial condition is , the geostrophic wind. This study considers model fields at 24 h, at which time the MABL structure is nearly steady; although the MABL slowly deepens beyond 24 h, the qualitative structure described in sections 4 – 6 does not change. 4. Overview of

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