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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

climate and climate-induced environmental changes residents of Matutúine District, Mozambique, observed and experienced between 1963 and 2008, and connections between these changes to daily life that residents make. We then compare their mental models of local climate change with climate data from a regional weather station to explore similarities and differences between residents’ models of change and trends observed in regional climate data. Rainfall, in particular, plays a key role in regulating

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Susan A. Crate

of approach, see section 2 , below). Through case analysis I explore water in mind, analyzing field data highlighting the history, cosmology, management practices, and contemporary water issues for Viliui Sakha—agropastoralist horse and cattle breeders of northeastern Siberia, Russia. First I briefly overview relevant political ecological theory, then discuss a political ecology of water in mind. Next, I use the political ecology of water in mind in the context of a case study, beginning with

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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

processes and data collection methods in order to achieve the overall research goals. We hope to lower the barriers to coproduction of knowledge by framing these approaches—action research (AR), transdisciplinarity, rapid assessment process (RAP), participatory integrated assessment (PIA), and boundary organizations—as tools to help guide and support researchers undertaking this challenging, yet rewarding, research. Several of these approaches have been used in climate science knowledge production

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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

organizations (NGOs), industry groups, and individual agricultural producers. Range management and extension specialists have documented a range of adaptive actions that ranchers employ in response to drought, including moving cattle to better pastures, developing new water sources, controlling invasive plants, purchasing supplemental feed, culling herds, weaning calves, diversifying income streams, restoring and maintaining forage and soil, developing more efficient grazing systems, improving herd quality

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Karen Pennesi

conversations, offering opinions in support or disagreement with one or another forecaster, and reporting on the accuracy of the prediction in reference to locally experienced conditions. Many people describe following the various predictions in terms of a game or sporting event; people like to see who will get it right or wrong and it is entertaining. This is similar to the situation in Zimbabwe, where farmers “felt that the forecasts improved the quality of their lives, even if the ways in which they did

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

and climate variability in the framework of a contextual analysis that reevaluates the notion of perception as a result of the interaction between people’s expectations, the evolution of societies, and the constructed nature of climatic data. Through the case of Ethiopian drought in 2002, Meze-Hausken (2004) showed how the apparent mismatch between a farmer’s perception of reduced rainfall (negative anomalies) and the observed amount (close to normal rainfall) can be reconciled only if we take

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