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Kimberly E. Klockow, Renee A. McPherson, and Daniel S. Sutter

a single year, a majority of the producers in the study noted that their production practices had in some way altered after the inclusion of Mesonet data into their regular practice. The degree to which these behavioral changes were profitable depended on many factors, including, but not limited to, the ability of producers to reduce costs while maintaining both quality and quantity of production, and the risk-averse preferences of the producers. Many producers used Mesonet data to support their

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Lana Jones and Bonnie Colby

actual quantity in the second stage to control for endogeneity. c. Temp3 The mean monthly temperature in the climate division where the water was acquired: To reflect temperature conditions prevalent in the time frame the transaction was being negotiated, mean monthly temperature is lagged 3 months from the date the transaction was reported to account for the time needed to complete a transaction and for it to be reported. Temperature data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center Web site

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

sensitive to climate variability and change such as water, sewer, and transportation infrastructure; disaster and emergency preparedness; coastal resources; land use and zoning; and water quality and supply. In Chicago, for instance, it has been estimated that the future impacts of climate change will cost the municipal government alone more than $2.5 billion from 2010 to 2099 ( Oliver Wyman Group 2008 ). These losses are expected to arise mostly from relatively commonplace alterations to municipal

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Gregory G. Garner and Anne M. Thompson

forecasting Air quality forecasters typically develop their own tools and algorithms to forecast pollution episodes in their respective areas of interest ( Aron and Aron 1978 ; Lin 1982 ; Robeson and Steyn 1990 ; Ryan 1995 ; Hubbard and Cobourn 1998 ; Davis and Speckman 1999 ). Human air quality forecasters, however, offer real-world experience in blending standard information and novel interpretations of nontraditional data, such as human behavior and current events, into forecast algorithms. A

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George B. Frisvold and Anand Murugesan

, crop variety choice, timing planting(s), timing cultivation, timing pesticides, timing irrigation, timing harvest, and crop storage, and crop insurance) relate almost exclusively to crop production, while three (livestock grazing, moving livestock, and livestock pest control) are exclusive to livestock production. Crop/livestock sales, in principle, could apply to any of the three groups, although few crop producers reported using weather data for this decision. Hedging could also apply to either

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Benjamin M. Miller

capable of picking up the NWR signal. Additional results suggest that the benefits of further expansion of this warning system may have declined over time, and potential reasons for such a decline are discussed. Focusing this weather warning system evaluation on NWR is appropriate for several reasons. In addition to the availability of quality data and a clear source of identifying variation, NWR has long been a flagship warning system of the National Weather Service. This research also serves as an

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Yoshiro Tsutsui

modest degree. A limitation of these studies is the limited number of sampling days for each individual: even the longest study covers only six weeks. To investigate the effect of weather on happiness or mood, it is desirable to analyze data covering the whole year. To this end, I conducted a daily web survey to collect data on the levels of happiness of 75 college students over 17 months, resulting in 32 125 observations. Additionally, I collected daily data on important individual-level control

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Frauke Hoss and Paul Fischbeck

increase forecast use more than addressing technical limitations of the forecast. 2. Method a. Description of TPB survey among EMs In the current study, a survey for EMs was devised to assess the four components of the TPB (behavioral intention, attitude, social norms, control beliefs) for two types of weather information: 1) observed weather conditions of the past few days and hours (called “recorded weather data”), and 2) short-term weather forecasts for the next few days and hours; similar to the

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Chengcheng Xu, Chen Wang, and Pan Liu

conditions and crash count data that were aggregated over a relatively long period of time, such as one year. During the past decade, the rise of dynamic freeway traffic control techniques, such as ramp metering systems and variable speed limit systems, provided a proactive way to improve traffic safety on freeway mainlines ( El Khoury and Hobeika 2006 ; Hossain and Muromachi 2011 ). The prediction of the risks of crash occurrences on freeways is an essential task for a freeway dynamic safety management

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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

weather patterns experienced across a particular region over time (e.g., Huth et al. 2008 ). These weather patterns can be used to represent the daily and seasonal variations in atmospheric conditions, which can then be linked to observational data, as characterizations of surface conditions, whenever and wherever available. High-quality observational data became more widespread throughout the region in the years following the French Indochina War. Therefore, it is possible to use reanalysis data as

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