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Robert L. Creasey and Russell L. Elsberry

the bottom surface assist in visualizing the vortex tilt in latitude and longitude. Elevations, latitudes, and longitudes of the ZWCs are provided in the insets. Although preliminary HDSS wind observations (or GPS latitude–longitude positions) did exist above 10 km in the level 1 TCI data fields, it is difficult to extend the ZWC analysis and vortex tilt calculation above 10 km. While this may be due to questionable data quality (values were omitted by the TCI data quality control team), the eye

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

restricted domains and durations. More importantly, applications in numerical weather prediction (NWP) have often been constrained to 6-h data assimilation cycles and AMV dataset thinning. In this study it will be demonstrated that shorter sampling times and continuous rapid scanning combined with the advanced sensors on these new-generation satellites will substantially improve the quality and quantity of the AMVs, and thus their potential impacts on the U.S. Navy regional and global model analyses and

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Shixuan Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

, temperature, and wind speed and direction. These dropsonde observations have been quality controlled via a combined “subjective-objective” procedure utilizing the Atmospheric Sounding Processing Environment (ASPEN) software ( Bell et al. 2016 ). As shown in Fig. 2 , the HDSS dropsonde observations provide substantive compensation for the lack of observations in the hurricane inner-core region ( Figs. 2a,b ), especially in the middle and upper troposphere ( Figs. 2c,d ). In addition, the HDSS dropsonde

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Eric A. Hendricks, Russell L. Elsberry, Christopher S. Velden, Adam C. Jorgensen, Mary S. Jordan, and Robert L. Creasey

small 6-h variability of the CIMSS VWSs. During 2015, the SHIPS VWS was being calculated based on background 6-h GFS forecasts and included hourly AMVs (thus utilizing ±30-min images), but only at the 6-h synoptic times, which may explain the 6-h variability. Furthermore, the AMVs incorporated in the data assimilation for the GFS had been thinned to be appropriate for the effective GFS horizontal grid resolution. Finally, the quality control criteria between the AMV magnitudes and directions were

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

resolutions herein. It is fortunate that the U.S. Navy’s TCI field campaign ( Doyle et al. 2017 ) and NOAA’s P-3 missions ( Rogers et al. 2017 ) obtained ample high quality observational data, in addition to satellite images, that can be used to verify the simulated structures of Patricia. Figure 5 compares the observed horizontal wind field and radar reflectivity during the WP-3D mission of Patricia’s extreme RI stage to the model simulated that are taken close to the time used for Figs. 4b,e . The

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