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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

1. Introduction Aerosols contribute directly to atmospheric variability and to Earth’s radiative balance through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Aerosols also contribute indirectly through complex aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) indicates that while the mechanisms of aerosol direct effects are well known, the uncertainties in the estimates of aerosol direct and indirect effects are larger than any

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

mainly controlled by atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics. For warm clouds, the “Twomey” effect (i.e., reducing droplet size and increasing reflectance of clouds due to increased droplet number for a constant liquid water path) proposed about four decades ago ( Twomey 1977 ) is relatively well understood. Many different aerosol indirect effects have since been suggested, such as increased cloud lifetime and cloudiness ( Albrecht 1989 ) and suppressed rain ( Rosenfeld 1999 ) that are both

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

SSA. Data reported by DeMott et al. (2015) suggest that the link between marine INPs and ocean biological activity is complex, and further evaluation of this link is needed in order to make estimates of atmospheric marine INPs. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach, advanced from DeMott et al. (2015) , to directly examine the hypothesis suggested four decades ago by Schnell and Vali (1976) : emissions of INPs are enhanced as a result of biological activity. As part of the National Science

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

spatiotemporal variability on intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal time scales ( Ding 1992 ). Typically, monsoon clouds cover most parts of eastern China during the warm season. Data from May to September of 2008–2010 are thus chosen for this study to ensure sufficient number of samples. China, especially eastern China, has undergone rapid economic development in recent decades, accompanied by a prominent increase in aerosol loading over this area ( Guo et al. 2011 ). Figure 1 shows the spatial

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Daniel Rothenberg and Chien Wang

Twomey effect ( Nenes et al. 2002 ; Lance et al. 2004 ). The development of activation parameterizations was pioneered by Twomey (1959) and Squires and Twomey (1961) , who derived a relationship between the number of activated particles and the environmental supersaturation based on an aerosol size distribution approximated by a power law. Ghan et al. (2011 ) presented a thorough overview of subsequent developments over the past five decades and an intercomparison of several modern

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Eyal Ilotoviz, Alexander P. Khain, Nir Benmoshe, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

1. Introduction Simulation of hail formation in midlatitude storms is one of the important problems in cloud physics. Hailstorms pose a serious threat to agriculture and property in many places around the world. During the last few decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the physical and dynamic processes favoring hail formation [see Cotton and Anthes (1989) for a comprehensive review]. Most studies point out that convective instability, high atmospheric humidity, and moderate

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