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Arthur Y. Hou and Sara Q. Zhang

1. Introduction Observations containing information on precipitation processes have become increasingly available from spaceborne microwave sensors in the past decade, and more is expected with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission now in formulation ( National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2006 ). These measurements include radar reflectivity from TRMM and GPM, brightness temperatures from microwave radiometers (e.g., TMI, SSM/I, AMSR-E, SSMIS, MADRAS, GMI, CMIS) and

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Philippe Lopez

three main categories. The list of references provided here is not meant to be exhaustive. The first type that can be referred to as all-or-nothing schemes corresponds to schemes that do not account for subgrid-scale variability inside the model grid box. Cloud fraction is either 0% or 100% depending on whether the model grid box mean relative humidity is below or above 100%, and any supersaturation is instantaneously removed through cloud and precipitation formation. This assumption is valid when

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Fuzhong Weng

2005 hurricane season, the HVAR was applied to several storms, resulting in improved analyses of the hurricanes three-dimensional warm core temperature structure and accompanying wind fields within and around the rain bands. Both the lower-level wind speed and upper-level divergence were also enhanced, displaying a reasonable asymmetric structure. Until now much of the impact of satellite data has been demonstrated through radiance assimilation of cloud-free atmospheres. In the next decade, many

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Graeme L. Stephens and Christian D. Kummerow

’s storm systems and, in turn, to the precipitation produced by these systems. Clouds further exert a profound influence on the solar and infrared radiation that enters and leaves the atmosphere. This influence is complex and not entirely understood, yet it has the potential to exert profound effects on climate and on forces that affect climate change ( Stephens 2005 ). It is for these reasons, among others, that the need to observe the distribution and variability of the properties of clouds and

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Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

1. Introduction While the skill for tracking tropical cyclones has been significantly improved during the past decades, an accurate prediction of their intensity, formation, and dissipation processes remains challenging. This forecast difficulty is due partially to a lack of knowledge on storm structures, especially when their circulations are weak and diffuse over open oceans and few upper-air observations are available from ships and commercial and reconnaissance aircraft. By using satellite

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