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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

1. Introduction Snow plays an important role in the hydrologic regime of mountainous catchments. In Mediterranean regions, significant variability in both meteorological variables and topographic features can be found ( Diodato and Bellocchi 2007 ). This adds complexity to the task of monitoring and modeling the evolution of snow distribution, which determines the infiltration–runoff regime and the availability of water during the dry season. Initially, a first approach to studying snowpack

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

parameter space represents the proportion of members in the largest membership cluster in relation to the total number of members across all assimilation time steps. The coverage, therefore, quantifies the weight of the cluster with largest membership and accounts for variability of cluster memberships due to different cluster groupings. The coverage representing the level of convergence for each model parameter across all assimilation time steps is shown in Fig. 7 . Table 2. Converged model parameter

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

(upwind face of elements) and the unit ground area reaches 0.4. After this value, a transition to “skimming” flow occurs and z 0 starts to reduce again ( Garratt 1992 ; Brock et al. 2006 ). The standard method to derive z 0 is from the vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed and air temperature, using measurements at two or more heights in the ABL. Until the past few decades, there have been two main acceptable strategies to estimate the aerodynamic roughness. On one hand, in situ measurements

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

abstraction.” The semiarid Konya basin in central Anatolia (Turkey), which is one of the biggest endorheic basins in the world, is a typical example of groundwater resources under strong anthropogenic pressure. Over the last few decades, the basin experienced huge groundwater abstraction for irrigation, which caused a hydraulic head decline of ~1 m yr −1 ( Bayari et al. 2009 ). Establishing the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrological fluxes using remote sensing (RS) methods has been the focus

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

), leaf area index (LAI; Su 2002 ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; Bastiaanssen et al. 1998 ), land cover ( Wiernga 1993 ) and green vegetation fraction (GVF; Zheng et al. 2012 , hereafter Z12 ). Meanwhile, the thermal roughness length z 0h is usually converted from z 0m by the factor kB −1 [ kB −1 = ln( z 0m / z 0h )]. The parameterization of kB −1 has stimulated numerous theoretical and experimental investigations over past decades. See, for example, Brutsaert (1982

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