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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

. Climate Dyn. , 24 , 435 – 448 . Ito, A. , 2008 : The regional carbon budget of East Asia simulated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and validated using AsiaFlux data . Agric. For. Meteor. , 148 , 738 – 747 . Ito, A. , 2011a : A historical meta-analysis of global terrestrial net primary productivity: Are estimates converging? Global Change Biol. , 17 , 3161 – 3175 . Ito, A. , 2011b : Decadal variability in the terrestrial carbon budget caused by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

–atmosphere interface, between the meteorological and climatological communities on one side, and hydrology, ecology, geography, and related terrestrial sciences on the other. This paper describes the history over nearly two decades of one research project at the land–atmosphere interface: the Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP). GSWP was one of several initiatives that pioneered cross-disciplinary studies at the land–atmosphere interface. The niche of GSWP is designated in its acronym. It is global in scale

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

or extension of irrigation facilities is inevitable to feed the burgeoning population in the coming decades ( Shiklomanov 2000 ). Water used for irrigation returns to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or back to rivers as return flow, which can potentially affect the terrestrial water and energy balances ( Haddeland et al. 2006b ; Tang et al. 2007 ; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ) as well as the flow of water vapor into the atmosphere ( Boucher et al. 2004 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ; Puma and Cook

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

does not include snow and ice anywhere. In addition to the six 1-km global land cover datasets, a snow analysis produced from surface observation data and satellite data in the Japanese 25-yr reanalysis (JRA-25; Onogi et al. 2007 ) was used to evaluate the interannual variability of seasonal snow cover. 3. Methodology Global total areas for each land cover type of each 1-km global land cover dataset and per-pixel agreements of each water-related land cover type were calculated, taking into account

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

Totterdell I. J. , 2000 : Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model . Nature , 408 , 184 – 187 . Dunn, A. , Barford C. , Wofsy S. , Goulden M. , and Daube B. , 2007 : A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: Means, responses to interannual variability, and decadal trends . Global Change Biol. , 13 , 577 – 590 . Falge, E. , and Coauthors , 2001 : Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net

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