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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

occurrences and may have induced occasional pressure gradients that caused up-ramps under stable conditions during the study period. In past decades, progress in understanding and modeling the stable boundary layer has been extremely slow because of its associated small-scale features, caused by the suppressed mixing ( Banta 2008 ). The large variability among profiles in S MYJ , S UW , and S YSU reflects the challenge in simulating stable boundary layers. During up-ramps under unstable conditions (UP

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Leslie M. Hartten and Paul E. Johnston

show strong range dependence, losing about 1.5 decades of sensitivity (15 dB Z ) with height from 0.5 to 3 km. Figure 4a reassures us that this profiler is not observing scatter from cloud particles, which generally have Z e < −20 dB Z ( Gossard and Strauch 1983 ). Figure 4b includes the maritime lower-tropospheric profile estimated by Gossard and Yeh (1980) from measurements made by Ames et al. (1955) ; other estimates of are found in Doviak and Zrnić (1993 , their Fig. 11.7 and

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

is intended to help address some of the most extreme challenges that California faces regarding water and flood management in the face of climate change. California’s population and economies (including agriculture), and thus its demands for water, are expected to grow rapidly in coming decades, in a time when floods and storms are being projected to increase in magnitude and frequency ( Das et al. 2011 ), when the state’s snowpacks are expected to retreat and decline ( Cayan et al. 2008 , 2013

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