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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

variability in the dynamics of the West African monsoon and found that a warm spring SST resulted in a wet monsoon. Hagos and Cook (2008) investigated the influences of the decadal Indian and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies on the late-twentieth-century Sahel precipitation variability and stated that the modeled partial recovery of the precipitation in the 1990s was mainly related to the warming of the northern tropical Atlantic Ocean. A number of different atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

NHJ, we used the Twentieth Century Reanalysis, version 2, dataset (20CR; Compo et al. 2011 ), which covers the period 1871–2012 with a 2° spatial resolution and a 1-month temporal resolution. Early meteorological observations are strongly affected by inhomogeneity due to changing station density ( Donat et al. 2011 ). We therefore limited our analysis to the period 1930–2012, which composes a suitable time frame to investigate NHJ variability at interannual to decadal time scales, but we

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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

.2% to 14.8% during past five decades ( Figure 3 ). The year-to-year variations may be due to differences in recharge and soil water storage being limiting for some years and not for others. The probability of a low YG s (less than 5%) is about 60% of all years in this study. For about 10% of the years, the YGs are more than 8.5%. This is similar to the results reported by Wang and Li (2010) , which indicated that soil physical properties were not the main cause for reduction in yield. Within our

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

( Figure 1 ; Vose et al. 2014 ) (printer-friendly grayscale files for all figures in this paper can be found in the online supplementary material). The topography-corrected Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)-based monthly rainfall datasets ( Daly et al. 1994 ) were used to estimate the change in rainfall amounts over the last two decades (1990–2008). PRISM uses point measurements of precipitation, temperature, and other variables to produce estimates of precipitation

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

; by 1950, the population had reached 10 million. California’s population nearly tripled in the last half of the twentieth century, reaching up to 37 million in 2010, out of which, approximately 70% live in coastal regions ( U.S. Census Bureau 2010 ). Many studies have confirmed that average California air temperatures at 2-m above ground level (AGL) increased over the past four decades. During the summer in particular, these trends show diurnal asymmetric warming rates: in coastal areas, nighttime

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

assess the sensitivity of the HLM results (see Table 1 ). Table 1. Possible values and level for the HLM input variables. The three level-1 variables ( , the covarying albedo values, and ) would likely show the most substantial year-to-year variability in real climate models. We assessed the sensitivity of HLM results for all their possible combinations, thus leading to different simulations. For all 27 combinations, the level-2 variables kept their representative values. The combination of level

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

-frequency precipitation variability over the region ( Delire et al. 2004 ; Delire et al. 2011 ), and model simulations with dynamic vegetation have found that vegetation growth may play a significant role in amplifying climate sensitivity through albedo changes ( O’ishi and Abe-Ouchi 2009 ). Furthermore, the greening of vegetation from irrigation during droughts may cause larger local to regional meteorological impacts than those that arise just from the additional irrigated water. For these reasons, dynamic

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

extensively in the METROMEX program, began to shift locale in the 1950s and then disappeared in the 1960s ( Changnon 1980 ). Tayanç et al. (1997) found no evidence of urban effects on precipitation for four large cities in Turkey, and a study of the Pearl River Delta of China reported reductions in precipitation ( Kaufmann et al. 2007 ). Despite decades of work, it remains unclear why the UHI can enhance precipitation in some regions while seemingly having no effect, or leading to decreases, in other

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of CO 2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere constitutes the largest, single-component flux in the global carbon cycle (e.g., Beer et al. 2010 ). Spatiotemporal patterns of flux exchange display pronounced variability between regions. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States represents one of the strongest carbon sinks in North America (e.g., Law et al. 2004 ; Law and Waring 2015 ). Accurate quantification of the magnitude of

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

, 2013 : Externally forced and internally generated decadal climate variability associated with the interdecadal Pacific oscillation . J. Climate , 26 , 7298 – 7310 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00548.1 . Misra , V. , J.-P. Michael , R. Boyles , E. P. Chassignet , M. Griffin , and J. J. O’Brien , 2012 : Reconciling the spatial distribution of the surface temperature trends in the southeastern United States . J. Climate , 25 , 3610 – 3618 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00170.1 . Mu , Q

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