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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

balanced. There has been a growing interest in exploiting the connection to improve the representation of amplitude in “source parameterization” of IGWs ( Charron and Manzini 2002 ; Zülicke and Peters 2008 ; Richter et al. 2010 ; Mirzaei et al. 2014 ; de la Cámara and Lott 2015 ; Chun et al. 2019 ). The objective is to include the spatiotemporal variability of IGWs at the source level ( de la Cámara and Lott 2015 ), which is expected to increase the realism of their representation and impact in

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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

split/coupled hypothesis does not explain more variability than the strong/coupled hypothesis. As the analysis of indices calculated from 10 hPa data alone does not allow for a clear identification of mesospheric couplings, we further investigate profiles extending over several levels. From the 21-day windows around the major warming events, we form zonal-mean zonal wind composites of those days with a mesospheric coupling and those without, at three selected levels (10, 1, and 0.1 hPa). Figure 4a

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

processes from the troposphere to the MLT for about five decades (e.g., Gossard et al. 1970 ; Atlas et al. 1970 ; Woodman and Guillen 1974 ; Sato and Woodman 1982 ; Vincent and Reid 1983 ; Balsley and Garello 1985 ; Fritts and Rastogi 1985 ; Fritts and Vincent 1987 ; Smith et al. 1987 ; Tsuda et al. 1989 , 1990 ; Sato 1994 ; Thomas et al. 1999 ; Pavelin et al. 2001 ; Luce et al. 2008 ). Rayleigh and resonance lidars have likewise contributed to the definition of GW properties via

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

5C8276M . 10.7289/V5C8276M Baldwin , M. , and Coauthors , 2001 : The quasi-biennial oscillation . Rev. Geophys. , 39 , 179 – 229 , . 10.1029/1999RG000073 Bechtold , P. , M. Köhler , T. Jung , F. Doblas-Reyes , M. Leutbecher , M. Rodwell , F. Vitart , and G. Balsamo , 2008 : Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 134 , 1337

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

1. Introduction During the last decades, internal gravity waves have been studied intensely because of their importance for the circulation and structure of the middle atmosphere ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ). The most energetic part of the gravity wave spectrum is excited in the troposphere, with prominent source mechanisms being the flow over topography (e.g., Smith et al. 2008 ), convection (e.g., Vadas et al. 2012 ), flow deformation, and vertical shear at upper-level fronts ( Plougonven

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