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John E. Janowiak, Peter Bauer, Wanqiu Wang, Phillip A. Arkin, and Jon Gottschalck

, Ferranti et al. (1990) documented experiments that showed that model forecast skill increased in the extratropics when the model tropical fields were forced to be influenced by observed MJO behavior, and thus demonstrated the potential for increased predictability if MJO variability can be mimicked in the models. In the past decade, Wheeler and Weickmann (2001) found that the NCEP model precipitation forecasts (ca. 1987) clearly depicted MJO behavior for predictions out to 5 days, but showed no

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Benoît Vié, Olivier Nuissier, and Véronique Ducrocq

1. Introduction Heavy precipitating events (HPEs) frequently occur over the western Mediterranean regions, mainly in autumn, producing disastrous flash floods that have been responsible for many casualties and heavy damages in recent decades. Such high-impact events have been well observed and studied over all the western Mediterranean regions (see Buzzi et al.1998 ; Penarrocha et al. 2002 ; Ducrocq et al. 2003 ; Nuissier et al. 2008 ; Ducrocq et al. 2008 , among others

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Ronald Gelaro, Rolf H. Langland, Simon Pellerin, and Ricardo Todling

1. Introduction The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) is a decade-long World Weather Research Program (WWRP) to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of one-day to two-week high-impact weather forecasts for the benefit of society, the economy, and the environment ( Shapiro and Thorpe 2004 ). A primary goal of THORPEX is to quantify the value of observations provided by the current global atmospheric observing network in terms of their impact on

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