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Norihisa Usui, Yosuke Fujii, Kei Sakamoto, and Masafumi Kamachi

analysis fields. It should be here noted that there is a variant of 3DVAR method, in which observations are compared to the first guess at the appropriate time (FGAT), but FGAT also assumes analysis increments to be constant within the assimilation window as in the 3DVAR algorithm. Because of the progress of numerical ocean models and enhancement of ocean observation data such as Argo floats and satellite-derived sea surface data in the past decade, many research groups have developed realistic data

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David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

assimilated in 2010 compared to 2004. The geographical coverage and quantity of temperature and salinity profiles assimilated in the EUC and NECC regions were greatest in 2011. No estimate was made of the minimum amount of in situ data required for a reliable description of the equatorial currents’ variability because a lack of resources prevented ECCO2 data selection experiments, in which certain datasets are excluded from the assimilation scheme to determine ECCO2 solutions. Table 1. Assimilated

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Robin J. T. Weber, Alberto Carrassi, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes

ranges of several weeks, months, or perhaps years. Where the accuracy of numerical weather predictions are determined by error in the initial conditions, centennial climate projection evaluations are determined by boundary conditions such as atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, while the signature of the initial condition is lost ( Hawkins and Sutton 2009 ). Seasonal-to-decadal prediction spans time horizons of up to approximately 10 years, falling between numerical weather prediction and

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Stefano Migliorini

1. Introduction Over the last decade or recent decades there has been a formidable increase in the amount of data that is being acquired by satellite sounding instruments and disseminated to operational meteorological centers for assimilation, particularly in the infrared spectral region. At ECMWF, the infrared sounding instruments that are currently monitored or assimilated are the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), on board the EUMETSAT Polar System MetOp polar

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Ting-Chi Wu, Christopher S. Velden, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Hui Liu, and Jeffrey L. Anderson

Hurricane Ike (2008). Assimilating these enhanced AMV data into a hurricane-scale model, Wu et al. (2014) found that initial analyses of TC vortex location, intensity, and structure are improved along with their forecasts. Given the findings from the past decade of forecast impact experiments for selected sets of satellite and aircraft observations [summarized in a WMO report by Majumdar et al. (2011) ], one may expect that the assimilation of AMVs in selected tropospheric layers or locations

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