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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

transport (e.g., Zhang et al. 2016 ; Feng et al. 2015 ). Kido and Tozuka (2017) investigated interannual salinity variability in the central-eastern equatorial and southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and found that subsurface salinity anomalies are mainly caused by anomalous zonal and vertical advections associated with the pIOD. The basinwide salinity structure in the Indian Ocean also shows decadal variability (e.g., Han et al. 2014 ). Salinity observations in the Indian Ocean at about 32°S imply

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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of variability in the equatorial latitudes on subseasonal time scales ( Madden and Julian 1971 ). MJO variability has been documented to modulate monsoon variability ( Lavender and Matthews 2009 ), hurricane activity in tropical latitudes ( Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ), extratropical weather regimes ( Lin and Brunet 2009 ; Moore et al. 2010 ; Zhou et al. 2012 ) and plays an important role in the development of ENSO

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

we wish to determine in two particular experiments are different. For example, the SST standard deviations over the Niño-3.4 region in the control and TPMC runs are different at 0.83° and 1.10°C, respectively, and thus the amplitude of the ENSO forcing is different. Also, interannual and decadal variabilities simulated between two experiments with different air–sea coupling conditions are different. This will be a concern when shorter subset data not long enough to average out interannual

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

1. Introduction The advent of satellite remote sensing in the past few decades has facilitated the study of upper-ocean circulation greatly. In comparison, information about the subthermocline ocean circulation has been lacking until the construction of the Argo float arrays in the world oceans, which have provided unprecedented data coverage over the subsurface global oceans. Using the P-vector absolute geostrophic currents based on Argo profiles, Yuan et al. (2014) studied the mean North

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

are grateful for the constructive comments from the editor and three anonymous reviewers. REFERENCES Bechtold , P. , M. Köhler , T. Jung , F. Doblas-Reyes , M. Leutbecher , M. J. Rodwell , F. Vitart , and G. Balsamo , 2008 : Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 134 , 1337 – 1351 , . 10.1002/qj.289 DeMott , C. A. , N. P. Klingaman , and

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Xingwen Jiang, Jianchuan Shu, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Huang, and Qing Wu

1. Introduction Southwest China (SWC), characterized by complex topography, receives considerable rainfall during summer. It contains the headwaters of many rivers, including the Yangtze, Langcang, and Nujiang, which provide as much as 46% of China’s available water resources. Because of large interannual variability of summer rainfall over SWC, droughts and floods hit SWC frequently, especially over the last decade, resulting in severe economic losses ( Wang et al. 2015a ). It is, therefore

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

extended. Accordingly, the Tasman Sea heat wave in 2015/16 appears to be a fairly singular event whereby the ocean and atmospheric components to the ocean anomalies were acting in consort, whereas more commonly they are not, and the atmospheric effects and other influences are apt to dominate. Similarly, Behrens et al. (2019) found no relationship between the Tasman Sea heat waves and ENSO or the Pacific decadal oscillation while Sloyan and O’Kane (2015) found pronounced decadal variability in the

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

according to its convective anomaly, its intraseasonal temporal scale and global spatial scale are substantially greater than that of typical mesoscale convective anomalies. How important are mesoscale deep convective structures to the description of the MJO? Do mesoscale convective structures interact cross scale with the planetary-scale structure of the MJO? These questions have been topics of research for decades, and as computational and observational capabilities have improved over recent years

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is an eastward-moving disturbance of clouds, rainfall, winds, and pressure that traverses the globe in the tropics with a period in the range of 30–80 days. The MJO is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific warm pool ( Zhang 2005 ). It modulates the timing and strength of monsoons and is an important influence for the development of some high-impact weather events such as tropical cyclones, flood, and drought in the Indo

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

Indian Ocean, which is known as the Somali CEF (e.g., Findlater 1969 ). The interannual variation of the Somali CEF is found to be related to broad climate variabilities, including the Mascarene high (e.g., Xue et al. 2003 ), the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation (e.g., Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001 ), and the Pacific–Japan teleconnection pattern (e.g., Wang and Xue 2003 ). Besides, another substantial CEF has been documented over the Maritime Continent (MC) region (e.g., Wang and Li 1982

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