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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

according to its convective anomaly, its intraseasonal temporal scale and global spatial scale are substantially greater than that of typical mesoscale convective anomalies. How important are mesoscale deep convective structures to the description of the MJO? Do mesoscale convective structures interact cross scale with the planetary-scale structure of the MJO? These questions have been topics of research for decades, and as computational and observational capabilities have improved over recent years

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction The tropical diurnal cycle has been of great interest to the scientific community for many decades. The “Maritime Continent” (MC) in particular presents an intriguing challenge, with its complex topography situated among some of the warmest sea surface temperatures (SST) on the planet ( Saito et al. 2001 ; Qian 2008 ; Wang and Sobel 2017 ). The diurnal cycle is a critical component of the variability in MC precipitation ( Bergemann et al. 2015 ), which provides a notable

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

°–150°E ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Boreal summer ISO (BSISO) convection, however, propagates both northward and eastward, passing over the Philippines before waning in the northwest Pacific ( Kikuchi et al. 2012 ; Lee et al. 2013 ). Despite decades of research, a complete understanding of the ISOs is still lacking. Most general circulation models (GCMs) fail to adequately reproduce the MJO and BSISO (e.g., Jiang et al. 2015 ; Neena et al. 2017 ). One struggle that GCMs have is the handling of ISO

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