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Lingsheng Meng, Wei Zhuang, Weiwei Zhang, Angela Ditri, and Xiao-Hai Yan

) found decadal sea level and wind stress changes around 2000 in the Indo-Pacific region. While the multidecadal regional sea level shifts in the Pacific during 1958–2008 were found by Moon et el. (2013) , Hamlington et al. (2016) uncovered an ongoing shift in Pacific Ocean sea level over the past few years. Han et al. (2014) found the western tropical Pacific decadal and multidecadal sea level variability intensified during recent decades. Many previous studies have associated sea level

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Nathan D. Anderson, Kathleen A. Donohue, Makio C. Honda, Meghan F. Cronin, and Dongxiao Zhang

-based observations are currently available but are sparse in time and space. High-quality, long-term moored time series could therefore fill a critical role in capturing decadal variability. Here we present 4 years (2013–17) of abyssal T / S data from the KEO mooring (available at ), plus preliminary data from 2018 to 2019, to provide lessons learned that may help to improve deep ocean data quality. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the

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Rui M. Ponte, Katherine J. Quinn, and Christopher G. Piecuch

comparable, for example, to estimates of decadal variability in the Southern Ocean (e.g., Hogg et al. 2015 ) and the subpolar North Atlantic (e.g., Häkkinen and Rhines 2004 ) derived from altimeter data uncorrected for GAL effects. Thus, trends are sizable and likely to corrupt any dynamical inferences made based on altimetry and hydrography measurements, if GAL effects are not properly corrected for. Given its lower latitudes and better coverage from both altimetry and the Argo system, for the

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Yury Vikhliaev, Paul Schopf, Tim DelSole, and Ben Kirtman

1. Introduction During the last decade, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in Pacific decadal climate variability. This variability is characterized by decadal variations of the intensity of the Aleutian low, positive (negative) SST anomalies in the central and western extratropical Pacific, and negative (positive) anomalies in the tropical and eastern extratropical Pacific (see Graham 1994 ; Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Mantua and Hare 2002 ). In

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Fernando J. Méndez, Melisa Menéndez, Alberto Luceño, and Inigo J. Losada

is evident in the three components of sea level: monthly mean sea levels ( Tsimplis and Woodworth 1994 ), surge levels (see Pugh 2004 , chapter 6), and the highest tide levels ( Zetler and Flick 1985 ; Dixon and Tawn 1999 ). Summing up the three components, the monthly maximum sea level is variable throughout a year and, in addition, the month of occurrence of the highest water level can fluctuate ( Smith and Leffler 1980 ). Decadal variability or interannual fluctuation is also present in the

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Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne, Mustapha Meftah, Sergey Khaykin, Chantal Claud, and Pierre Simoneau

atmosphere as seen in LIMS temperature . J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 557 – 561 ,<0557:DTITEM>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0557:DTITEM>2.0.CO;2 Hood , L. L. , J. L. Jirikowic , and J. P. McCormack , 1993 : Quasi-decadal variability of the stratosphere: Influence of long-term solar ultraviolet variations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 3941 – 3958 ,<3941:QDVOTS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<3941:QDVOTS

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Brian H. Kahn, Brian J. Drouin, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

), NASA will systematically observe the FIR (15–54 µ m) spectral region for at least two seasons at 0.86 µ m spectral sampling using low-cost CubeSats carrying miniaturized thermal infrared spectrometers (TIRS). PREFIRE will quantify spatial and temporal variability in FIR spectra throughout the expected range of T sfc and CWV encountered at both poles. The success of the PREFIRE mission is predicated on its ability to sample a majority of the instantaneous environmental regimes that compose the

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Joel R. Norris and Amato T. Evan

subgrid-scale cloud processes and produce cloud simulations that are inconsistent with one another and with observations (e.g., Clement et al. 2009 ; Klein et al. 2013 ). The shortcomings of theory and global climate models motivate the alternative approach of observing how clouds have changed in recent decades, a time period of rapidly increasing anthropogenic forcing and warming of the climate system. If patterns of multidecadal cloud variability likely to be associated with anthropogenically

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J. Tournadre and S. Bhandari

1. Introduction Information on the spatial and temporal variability of rain rate is important not only for meteorology and hydrology but also for the design of remote sensing and in situ measuring systems, for the measurement of areal rainfall accumulation, and for the design of millimeter wave communication systems. For example, knowledge of the short time-scale variability is essential when comparing rain-rate estimates from different data sources for calibration purposes, and the knowledge

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Christopher G. Piecuch, Ichiro Fukumori, Rui M. Ponte, and Ou Wang

1. Introduction Launched in March 2002, the twin Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft have been making nearly continuous measurements of mass redistribution in the climate system for more than a decade ( Tapley et al. 2004 ). Estimates of ocean bottom pressure ( ) derived from such observations are a powerful tool for studying ocean circulation and climate variability ( Wahr et al. 1998 ). The data have been applied to quantify ice sheet and mountain glacier contributions

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