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  • Decadal variability x
  • In Honor of Bach-Lien Hua: Ocean Scale Interactions x
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Sandy Grégorio, Thierry Penduff, Guillaume Sérazin, Jean-Marc Molines, Bernard Barnier, and Joël Hirschi

this heat transport strongly influences the air–sea heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream region; changes in the AMOC northward limb transport may therefore have substantial climatic impacts ( Dong et al. 2007 ). Observational programs, developed in the last decade, are monitoring the AMOC strength, structure, and variability: the RAPID–MOCHA program ( Hirschi et al. 2003 ; Baehr et al. 2004 ; Cunningham et al. 2007 ; Kanzow et al. 2007 ; McCarthy et al. 2012 ) started in 2004 and continuously

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A. M. Treguier, C. Lique, J. Deshayes, and J. M. Molines

1.25 ± 0.36 PW over 8 years ( McCarthy et al. 2015 ). This paper is focused on the eddy heat transport, namely, the time average of the product of velocity and temperature temporal fluctuations. In our definition, “eddy” includes all the time variability at periods larger than a few days; this variability consists of coherent eddies but also waves, meanders, and large-scale modes of variability. With this definition, the eddy heat transport is small at the latitude of RAPID: 0.08 ± 0.03 PW

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François Ascani, Eric Firing, Julian P. McCreary, Peter Brandt, and Richard J. Greatbatch

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ( Stramma et al. 2005 ; Eden 2006 ; Brandt et al. 2008 ; Stramma et al. 2010 ; Czeschel et al. 2011 ; Brandt et al. 2012 ). Further, the large-scale biases in the nutrient and oxygen fields in global, coupled, biogeochemical ocean models have been attributed to inaccuracies of the simulated DEC ( Dietze and Loeptien 2013 ; Getzlaff and Dietze 2013 ). Finally, Brandt et al. (2011) provide evidence that the upward-propagating energy and interannual variability of the

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Michel Ollitrault

long-term variability of 13 Sv using a combination of hydrography, current-meter estimates, and satellite altimetry. Our global estimate transport of the ACC is therefore about 17% stronger than Koenig et al.’s (2014) recent local determination. Recently larger values (153 Sv) were estimated by Mazloff et al. (2010) . This last comparison is interesting because their barotropic streamfunction estimates come from data and methods completely different from ours. They use an adjoint method to

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Yang Jiao and W. K. Dewar

upwelling and high-latitude downwelling. The accompanying buoyant flux balances the ocean global heat budget. As fluctuations in the MOC are thought to participate in multidecadal to centennial climate variability, small-scale mixing is of interest to global climate. As suggested by the above, a convenient language for the quantitative discussion of mixing is that of energetics. Buoyant fluids are mixed downward and heavy fluids are mixed upward in the scenario, and this requires energy. Recent reviews

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W. K. Dewar, J. C. McWilliams, and M. J. Molemaker

speeds of 0.1–0.3 m s −1 . It is also important in eastern ocean basin variability, acting as the apparent source of intense, subsurface, submesoscale anticyclones known as “Cuddies” ( Simpson and Lynn 1990 ; Garfield et al. 1999 ) and contributes to the formation of the eastern Pacific “jets” and “squirts” ( Davis 1985 ; Flament et al. 1985 ; Kosro and Huyer 1986 ). The topography of the California coast consists of a relatively narrow shelf of a few tens of kilometers followed by a steep drop

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