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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

; the standard deviation is large enough in this Gulf Stream region to make it difficult to see the multidecadal trends. It exhibits low-frequency variability on a number of time scales with some decades trending cooler and others trending warmer. The magnitude of the temperature change over some of the 20-yr periods is comparable to those over the full 51-yr period, even though the 20-yr periods were not selected to maximize their temperature changes. Figure 5b presents the 51-yr trend line in

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

changed with the WOCE survey, followed by repeat hydrographic transects of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) program, sustained satellite altimetric height measurements, and the global Argo array of profiling floats. The ocean’s role in climate variability can now be observed. The present work was stimulated by a study of global ocean heat storage from 1993 to 2003 ( Willis et al. 2004 ). An intriguing finding was that the maximum in zonally integrated warming over the past decade

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Lee-Lueng Fu

altimeter observations, but did not explore the synoptic characteristics of the variability in terms of coherent modal patterns. The spatial and temporal coverage of satellite altimeter data provides an excellent opportunity to study the details of the basin-wide variability of the ocean. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the decade-long altimetry data record from the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon (T/P) and Jason missions for describing the modal characteristics of the

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

, whereas measurements from satellite altimetry suggest an increase of 3.1 mm yr −1 for the same period ( Antonov et al. 2005 ), leaving a residual of 1.5 mm yr −1 to be accounted for by nonthermosteric effects. Assuming a constant or near-constant global mean salinity, halosteric sea level changes are of second order globally, but can be very important regionally because of anomalous freshwater fluxes ( Antonov et al. 2002 ). Interannual to decadal variability of local and global rates of sea level

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

response of the Mediterranean Sea to atmospheric pressure fluctuations ( Cazenave et al. 2002 ) or possibly to fluctuations driven by differences in evaporation and precipitation and internal hydraulic control at the Gibraltar Strait ( Larnicol et al. 1995 ). For instance, Garrett et al. (1990a , b ) and Ross et al. (2000) have postulated that observed sea level variability in and around the strait reflects flipping between maximal and submaximal states of the baroclinic exchange ( Farmer and Armi

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

assimilation method that produces dynamically self-consistent results. Stammer et al. (2004) discussed the skill of the surface forcing fields estimated as part of the same solution (see below). We embark here on an evaluation and discussion of the resulting estimates of the 11-yr mean and interannual to decadal changes in the ocean state and property transports. Ocean variabilities on those time scales gained substantial attention during recent years and are a central focus of the World Climate Research

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

1. Introduction With the launching of altimeter missions more than a decade ago, the oceanic response to loading by the gravitational tide potential and by barometric pressure P a has been the subject of renewed interest. Driven in part by the need to process and interpret the sea level observations, numerous hydrodynamic tide solutions ( Shum et al. 1997 ) and the first numerical studies of the response under realistic P a ( Ponte 1993 ) have been published. Most of these works employ

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

.g., Pettersson 1930 ). A few decades ago the suggestion that the Moon played a role in determining global ocean properties was considered lunatic; now it is considered obvious (Wunsch and Munk were more comfortable working in the earlier times). There is wide agreement that pelagic tidal mixing must be taken into account in any realistic modeling of ocean properties. But we are a long way from understanding the underlying physics, and depend heavily on a parameterization of the processes involved. The

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Nelson G. Hogg and Daniel E. Frye

from these moorings often exceeds 90%, common failure points are the mechanical sensors (e.g., Savonius rotor, vane, compass, and vane follower) and the cassette-based data recorder. As physical oceanography has evolved in the past three decades to place more emphasis on long-time-scale problems associated with climate variations, the 2-yr limitation of the present mooring technology has become increasingly burdensome and expensive. Time series of at least decadal length are of interest and the

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

, and provided interesting applications of the adjoint method, for example, Galanti et al. [(2002) , using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM)], Weaver et al. [(2003) , using the Océan Parallélisé (OPA) model developed at the Laboratoire d’Océanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie (LODYC)], and Moore et al. [(2004) , using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)]. (b) With their publication of a dynamically consistent, decadal, quasi-global state estimate

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