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Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

1. Introduction Many studies indicate that warming temperatures over the next several decades will lead to general decreases in runoff across the western United States, along with a shift toward earlier timing of runoff, regardless of any decline in annual precipitation ( Nash and Gleick 1991 ; Barnett et al. 2008 ; Gangopadhyay and Pruitt 2011 ; Bureau of Reclamation 2012 ; Woodbury et al. 2012 ) (for a complete bibliography, see Bureau of Reclamation 2012 ). Such changes could pose

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M. Sekhar, M. Shindekar, Sat K. Tomer, and P. Goswami

). Even though climate models project with greater certainty, the rise in temperature in various parts of the globe, the projections of rainfall are still are uncertain ( Earman and Dettinger 2011 ). During the last decade, an extensive amount of research has been published on how climate change might influence different aspects of the hydrological cycle with focus on surface water impacts ( Adger et al. 2007 ). Even though in recent years groundwater impacts of climate change are receiving attention

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

countries ( Biswas and Tortajada 2001 ). In recent decades, the climatic impact of change of land use and land cover (LULC) on local, regional, and global climate has been the subject of intensive research ( Woldemichael et al. 2012 ; Degu et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2011 ; Yang et al. 2011 ; Mishra et al. 2010 ; Niehoff et al. 2002 ). Impacts of LULC changes on the hydrological process via atmospheric processes (changes in rainfall patterns) appear to be less understood, even though the impacts

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Mohammad Karamouz, Erfan Goharian, and Sara Nazif

1. Introduction The atmosphere has warmed in recent decades because of the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations ( Alley et al. 2007 ). It is expected that global average surface air warming will continue during the twenty-first century and the frequency of hot extremes, heat waves, and heavy precipitation events will continuously increase. The response of the global climate system to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is simulated with the general circulation models

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