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M. N. Khaliq and P. Gachon

1. Introduction It is important to explore the linkages between large-scale climate variability and regional-scale hydroclimatic processes because interannual and decadal-scale climate variability is instrumental in planning regional water resources, which are of significant ecological, cultural, and economic value. In some of the previous studies, the variability of winter precipitation and temperature in northwestern North America (NWNA) was associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation

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Lareef Zubair and Janaki Chandimala

); that it may be driven by decadal variations in the Atlantic circulation ( Chang et al. 2001 ) and by decadal variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole ( Ashok et al. 2001 ); or that this weakening may be attributed simply to stochasticity ( Gershunov et al. 2001 ). In this paper, the decadal variability of the ENSO influences on streamflow and rainfall in the Kelani catchment in Sri Lanka is investigated. The Kelani catchment rainfall is significantly affected by large-scale phenomenon. The low

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Álvaro González-Reyes, James McPhee, Duncan A. Christie, Carlos Le Quesne, Paul Szejner, Mariano H. Masiokas, Ricardo Villalba, Ariel A. Muñoz, and Sebastián Crespo

–50 and 1985–2000 periods, using 16-yr running blocks. However, a greater correlation between IPO and the southern subregion is present beginning in the 1970s ( Fig. 5c ). Despite this, the decadal and multidecadal variability related to the PDO and IPO shows general nonsignificant relationships over the analyzed period. Fig . 5. (a) Correlation coefficients between the northern and southern subregional hydroclimatic series and the winter (May–August) Niño-3.4 SST using a 16-yr running block. (b

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Bo Dong, John D. Lenters, Qi Hu, Christopher J. Kucharik, Tiejun Wang, Mehmet E. Soylu, and Phillip M. Mykleby

forces, such variations are also associated with internal climate variability such as the interdecadal Pacific oscillation [IPO or Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO); Mantua et al. 1997 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Dong and Dai 2015 , 2017 ] and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO; Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ). The phase shift of the IPO around 1976/77 is found to be concurrent with a step increase in annual streamflow in the conterminous United States ( McCabe and Wolock 2002 ). Mo and

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Mariano H. Masiokas, Ricardo Villalba, Brian H. Luckman, and Steven Mauget

: Variability in subtropical Andean Argentinean Atuel river; a wavelet approach. Environmetrics , 11 , 251 – 269 . 10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(200005/06)11:3<251::AID-ENV405>3.0.CO;2-0 Dettinger, M. D. , Battisti D. S. , Garreaud R. D. , McCabe G. J. Jr. , and Bitz C. M. , 2000 : Interhemispheric effects of interannual and decadal ENSO-like climate variations on the Americas. Interhemispheric Climate Linkages, V. Markgraf, Ed., Academic Press, 1–16 . Escobar, F. , and Aceituno P. , 1998

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Seth Westra and Ashish Sharma

; Dutta et al. 2006 ; Barros and Bowden 2008 ). Correlations with ENSO indices are usually higher for streamflow than for rainfall ( Dutta et al. 2006 ), although the ENSO–streamflow relationship is somewhat weaker on the eastern coastal fringe, including in the Sydney catchment region considered in this paper, compared to other parts of Australia (e.g., Chiew et al. 1998 ). In addition to this interannual variability, Australian rainfall and streamflow are subject to variability at decadal or

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Adam K. Gobena and Thian Y. Gan

accumulation takes place), diagnostic analysis of low-frequency hydroclimatic variability and its relationship with the primary modes of Pacific climate variability—such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern, and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)—could provide valuable information for Alberta’s water resources managers, particularly with regard to long-range streamflow forecasting. ENSO teleconnections to western Canada’s hydroclimatic variability are well

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Yang Yang, Thian Yew Gan, and Xuezhi Tan

1. Introduction In recent decades, hydrologic extremes such as floods and droughts have caused more public attention because they have been occurring more frequently and in greater severity worldwide ( Easterling et al. 2000 ; Costa and Soares 2009 ; Wang et al. 2014 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Elewa et al. 2016 ; Zilli et al. 2017 ). As Earth warms, a higher temperature likely means that more precipitation will fall over shorter time intervals, thus increasing the frequency and severity of

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Insa Otte, Florian Detsch, Ephraim Mwangomo, Andreas Hemp, Tim Appelhans, and Thomas Nauss

intra-annual rainfall distribution cannot be simplified to a generally decreasing trend over time but should rather be conceived as seasonal fluctuations of rainfall with a quite large intraseasonal variability. While the long rains recently declined significantly over time ( p < 0.05) from (decadal monthly median) peak values in April of 254 to 122 mm at KIA, Moshi, and TPC (from 540 to 348 mm at Kilema and Kibosho), the short rains became more abundant and potentially more prolonged (not

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

with IDI < 0.3 persisting for 6 months or longer; contours are given by the color bar. (b) The duration of droughts averaged over drought events in months; contours are given by the color bar. (c) The time series of percentage of areas with IDI < 0.3 over the CONUS, and (d) ensemble mean SRI3 averaged over the Central United States (percentile). (e) As in (d), but for ensemble mean SM percentiles. The CONUS drought record has obvious long-term trends and decadal variability. Drought occurred less

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