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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

decade and a half. This review also identifies questions that remain unanswered as well as potential avenues for future research that have been motivated by recent investigations. Section 2 discusses efforts toward a universal definition of, and classifiers for, ET. Section 3 documents the development of, and additions to, new and existing ET climatologies and looks to how ET climatology may change in the future. Section 4 describes the updated understanding of direct impacts associated with

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Robert Wood

shown on the images. The scale is approximately the same in each of the images. Stratocumulus radiative properties depend not only upon their macrophysical structure, but also upon their microphysical properties ( Hansen and Travis 1974 ). The latter are impacted by variability in atmospheric aerosol, as suggested by Twomey (1974 , 1977) and later demonstrated by Brenguier et al. (2000b) . The control of stratocumulus radiative properties by processes on scales ranging from the planetary scale

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

associated with north-south oscillations of the monsoontrough. This is the northward propagation of the troughthat has been studied extensively in recent years and isdiscussed here in section 6. To our knowledge therewere no other published analyses of local winds thatrelated to the oscillation during the decade. The first published evidence based on actual clouddata that there might be eastward-propagating cloudsystems similar to those of Fig. 3 came from Gruber(1974). He computed space-time spectra

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Zhiyong Meng and Fuqing Zhang

a reduced analysis error when assimilating potential temperature and dewpoint instead of temperature and specific humidity at the surface, which is likely due to the larger variability and less Gaussian distribution of the latter variables ( Fujita et al. 2007 ). To describe more detailed mesoscale features, observations with higher resolution than conventional surface observations are required. More and more attention is being paid to the assimilation of remotely sensed observations for the LAM

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

understanding of the pan-European tornado climatology. Recently, this situation began to change with more tornadoes reported in the last decade compared to previous decades and with reports now coming from the majority of European countries. This recent increase in the number of reports can be attributed to increased public awareness (e.g., Rauhala et al. 2012 ; Antonescu and Bell 2015 ), to the development of databases maintained by national meteorological services (e.g., Renko et al. 2013 ), and to

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

simulation with doubled CO 2 . The spatial resolution of the atmosphere model is T31 with 19 layers. Error bars indicate interannual variability of global- and annual-mean surface temperature. Sensitivity experiments like the one shown in Fig. 2 are rarely conducted with weather and climate models. Hence, the magnitude of the numerical artifacts is unclear in most models. In practice, model developers often tend to use the longest possible step size and then go through a time-consuming tuning process

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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

from the U.S. forecast models ( McMurdie and Mass 2004 ). For the 2002 event, there was a substantial variability in skill among major forecast centers, with the Met Office model producing the most skillful prediction. f. A conceptual model of Northwest wind events Most major Northwest windstorm events caused by strong midlatitude cyclones can be divided into four stages ( Fig. 23 ). In this schematic evolution, we consider a wind event over western Washington, but the ideas are appropriate for

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

: 10.1002/2014GL060863 . Molteni , F. , 2003 : Atmospheric simulations using a GCM with simplified physical parametrizations. I: Model climatology and variability in multi-decadal experiments . Climate Dyn. , 20 , 175 – 191 . Morrison , H. , A. Morales , and C. Villanueva-Birriel , 2015 : Concurrent sensitivities of an idealized deep convective storm to parameterization of microphysics, horizontal grid resolution, and environmental static stability . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 143 , 2082

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