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James J. Riley and Erik Lindborg

asymptotically weaker with increasing wavenumber and the spectrum approaches the spectrum of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence. According to the established interpretation, the spectrum to the left of the minimum, which follows a k −1 υ behavior for more than one decade, is a spectrum of weakly nonlinear internal gravity waves, although strong nonlinear effects may not be negligible in the neighborhood of the minimum ( Müller et al. 1986 ; Lindborg and Riley 2007 ). The observations reported in Fig. 1 are

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Paul D. Williams, Thomas W. N. Haine, and Peter L. Read

the inter–life cycle variability of inertia–gravity wave activity. Although knowledge of the energy stored in the inertia–gravity waves is valuable, the energy flux into them from the balanced baroclinic wave is arguably of greater consequence. The growth rate of the inertia–gravity waves in Figs. 5 and 6 gives some indication of this energy transfer, which we now quantify. Figure 6e shows that the peak energy transfer into the inertia–gravity waves occurs between the phases of 120° and 220

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