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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

rainfall variability over Africa on time scales of decades to millennia . Global Planet. Change , 26 , 137 – 158 , doi: 10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00040-0 . Nicholson, S. E. , 2005 : On the question of the “recovery” of the rains in the West African Sahel . J. Arid Environ. , 63 , 615 – 641 , doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.03.004 . Olsson, L. , Eklundh L. , and Ardö J. , 2005 : A recent greening of the Sahel—Trends, patterns and potential causes . J. Arid Environ. , 63 , 556 – 566 , doi: 10

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

1. Introduction For many communities, understanding western scientific terms of climate variability and climate change can be difficult ( McNaught et al. 2014 ). In some locations, including many communities in the Pacific Ocean region, weather, climate variability, extremes, and climate change are words and concepts that may not have a specific equivalent term in local language and may not be well understood nor easily communicated ( Leonard et al. 2013 ; McMillen et al. 2014 ; Malsale et al

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

variability and change In common parlance, while climate change is witnessed in the long-term alterations in climatic elements, climate variability is the short-term fluctuations experienced in weather patterns in a given geographical location. Whereas climate change is defined by the IPCC (2014 , p. 1760) as “a change in the state of the climate that can be identified…by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

. Appl. Meteor. , 38 , 1488 – 1498 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1488:ABGCYI>2.0.CO;2 . Podestá, G. P. , and Coauthors , 2002 : Use of ENSO-related climate information in agricultural decision making in Argentina: A pilot experience . Agric. Syst. , 74 , 371 – 392 , doi: 10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00046-X . Podestá, G. P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Decadal climate variability in the Argentine Pampas: Regional impacts of plausible scenarios on agricultural systems . Climate Res. , 40

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

. , 2002 : Millennial to multi-decadal variability in the climate of southern Africa . Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1105 – 1117 . van Wyk, A. , 1994 : Maputaland–Pondoland region . Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation, Vol. 1, S. Davis, V. Heywood, and A. Hamilton, Eds., Information Press, 227–235 . Vedwan, N. , and Rhoades R. , 2001 : Climate change in the western Himalayas of India: A study of local perception and response . Climate Res. , 19 , 109

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Shannon M. McNeeley

around the world have focused on North American indigenous peoples and climate change for decades ( Krupnik and Jolly 2002 ; Nuttall et al. 2005 ; Maynard 1998 ; Cruikshank 2001 ), their work has been marginalized from mainstream science. Yet, there is a growing recognition in the scientific community of this disconnect and the value of incorporating indigenous knowledge and observations into climate change research. Indigenous peoples are astute observers of climate change because they have close

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

planting schedules to avoid periods of heavy rainfall or moving livestock to safety when major flooding is forecast. Often in PICs, a bad harvest in one year due to a poor forecast decision can put farmers in debt for many years, potentially contributing to generations of poverty (e.g., Lal et al. 2009 ). Advances in meteorological and computational sciences in the past decades have enabled the development of state-of-the-art forecast models that are capable of making region-specific forecasts up to

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Susan A. Crate

) and a growing concern about its shallow engagement with ecology—at issue for at least a decade but still unresolved ( Vayda and Walters 1999 ). I would argue that, despite these criticisms, political ecology remains a powerful tool that will only improve as we continue to apply it and critique that application. Like Forsyth (2003) argues, environmental issues and politics are “coproduced,” and there are blatant connections among them. It is in this spirit of refining this tool that I proceed

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Chie Sakakibara

electronic equipment, has become part of traditional hunting gear. Survival disciplined the Iñupiat by requiring skills in walking in multiple worlds, for example, in the creation of new traditions, but also in a new era of political survival ( Bodenhorn 2001 ). Current expressions of muktuk politics are based on Iñupiaq–whale integrity and reflect four decades of political mobilization among the indigenous peoples of the Arctic to fend off unwanted intrusions, protect the environment, retain their

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

person.” The authors write ( Swim et al. 2009 , p. 21): While a region’s climate and changes in its climate obviously determine its weather patterns, weather events—even extreme ones—are not necessarily diagnostic of changes in the climate. Climate change is a trend in averages and extremes of temperature, precipitation, and other parameters that are embedded in a lot of variability, making it very difficult to identify from personal experience. People often falsely attribute unique events to climate

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