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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

rainfall variability over Africa on time scales of decades to millennia . Global Planet. Change , 26 , 137 – 158 , doi: 10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00040-0 . Nicholson, S. E. , 2005 : On the question of the “recovery” of the rains in the West African Sahel . J. Arid Environ. , 63 , 615 – 641 , doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.03.004 . Olsson, L. , Eklundh L. , and Ardö J. , 2005 : A recent greening of the Sahel—Trends, patterns and potential causes . J. Arid Environ. , 63 , 556 – 566 , doi: 10

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

-based analysis of seven domestic climate adaptation planning initiatives representing a broad distribution of geographies and governmental jurisdictions. It begins with a discussion of the dimensions of local authority and influence over resources sensitive to climate variability and change, highlighting methodologies available for state and local governments to adapt to climate change and suggested criteria to evaluate adaptation strategies. The paper then delves into the adaptation plans themselves

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J. Sander, J. F. Eichner, E. Faust, and M. Steuer

found that losses from strong hailstorms and reports of large hail have increased in recent decades ( Brooks and Dotzek 2008 ; Changnon 2009 ). Correspondingly, the thunderstorm-related risk level has changed over the past four decades. In the current study, we analyze the time series 1970–2009 of thunderstorm-related normalized losses from sizeable events exceeding a large loss threshold. The area under focus is the contiguous United States east of 109°W, and the losses have been aggregated

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Vikram M. Mehta, Cody L. Knutson, Norman J. Rosenberg, J. Rolf Olsen, Nicole A. Wall, Tonya K. Bernadt, and Michael J. Hayes

1. Introduction Decadal climate variability (DCV) phenomena influence hydrometeorology, water availability, food production, and other societal sectors and interests in many ways. For well over a century, and in various parts of the world, scientists (and pseudoscientists) have attempted to predict climate at multiyear-to-decadal and longer time scales. Under phase 5 of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5; Meehl et al. 2009 ; Murphy et al

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Amanda H. Lynch and Ronald D. Brunner

Failed . Yale University Press, 464 pp . Shea, E. L. , and Colasacco N. D. , 2005 : The Pacific ENSO Applications Center (PEAC): The first decade. Proc. 16th Conf. on Climate Variability and Change, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P4.2. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/Annual2005/techprogram/paper_83516.htm ] . Simon, H. A. , 1996 : The Science of the Artificial . 3rd ed. MIT Press, 215 pp . UNFCCC 1992 : United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. FCCC

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G. Cruz, W. Baethgen, D. Bartaburu, M. Bidegain, A. Giménez, M. Methol, H. Morales, V. Picasso, G. Podestá, R. Taddei, R. Terra, G. Tiscornia, and M. Vinocur

to successful science-policy coproduction models ( Lemos and Morehouse 2005 ). Consequently, we focus on the iterative changes in the science-policy interface when analyzing the temporal evolution of four agricultural droughts that impacted Uruguay’s livestock sector in the last three decades. In summary, the goal of this paper is to explore if and how there was a shift in the policy approach to deal with droughts from disaster response to risk management. We do so, based on the case study of the

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Shannon M. McNeeley, Tyler A. Beeton, and Dennis S. Ojima

1. Introduction Severe drought impacts are among the costliest weather and climate disasters in the United States ( Smith and Katz 2013 ). The north-central region of the United States (i.e., northern Rocky Mountains/high plains) has experienced a series of extreme to exceptional droughts in recent decades with widespread impacts across sectors. One report on the 2002 drought impacts estimated a loss of $3 billion to the agricultural sector in Nebraska and South Dakota ( Hayes et al. 2004

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Alan K. Betts

.16°F) century −1 . For the Lake Champlain basin, the long-term temperature records show considerable variability over the past century, with steeper upward temperature trends in recent decades of 0.5°F decade −1 ( Stager and Thill 2010 ). The change in ice cover on Lake Champlain has been substantial. On average, the main body of the lake now freezes roughly 2 weeks later than during the early 1800s and about 9 days later on average than in 1900. The larger change is that during the nineteenth

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Kieran M. Findlater, Milind Kandlikar, Terre Satterfield, and Simon D. Donner

require greater flexibility than weather, and better access to information, finance, and technology. Meanwhile, in a much larger-scale study of agriculture in the United States, Burke and Emerick (2016) find that farmers’ short-term responsiveness (i.e., to weather) masks a lack of longer-term adaptation (i.e., to decadal climate variability). They argue that this difference in short- versus long-term responsiveness will lead to greater future losses from climate change than found in studies that

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Yun Su, Yuan Kang, Xianshuai Zhai, and Xiuqi Fang

157 records of intermarriage for pacification were identified, and they were merged into 504 peacemaking events. Taking every decade as the statistical time range, we constructed the frequency sequence of paying tribute, intermarriage for pacification, and peacemaking events from the Western Han to the Qing dynasty. By counting the frequency of events in different dynasties and different stages, we analyzed the characteristics of the variation in the peacemaking stages. By constructing statistical

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