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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

data include not only local surface forcings but the large-scale atmospheric warming signal resulting from greenhouse effects, natural decadal variability, and volcanoes ( Pielke et al. 2002 ; Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Zhou et al. 2004 ; Frauenfeld et al. 2005 ; Lim et al. 2005 ; Kalnay et al. 2006 ). Impact of the vegetation cover can extend to some extent into the free atmosphere and thus may influence the atmospheric and surface reanalysis ( Kabat et al. 2004 ), but NNR is substantially

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

(decreases in height-to-width ratio, roof fraction). Degradation in amplitude occurs for changes that decrease the influence of the pervious road fraction. Note that the phase of latent heat flux is not affected by uncertainties in morphological parameters because the temporal variability of latent heat flux is controlled by sources not modeled here—that is, vehicle combustion, air-conditioning, and street washing ( Oke et al. 1999 ). The simulation of storage heat flux is very stable with respect to

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