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Xiaogu Zheng and Craig S. Thompson

catchment and to estimate this variability for the next two to three decades. To this end, a climate variable is needed that is both predictable and significantly associated with rainfall on a decadal time scale. Fortunately, the IPO may be such a climate variable. The IPO has significant impacts on rainfall and river flows in certain regions of New Zealand. In the west and south of South Island, the negative IPO phase is generally associated with lower rainfall and inflows, and vice versa for the

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

, dynamic change could also contribute to the decadal variability of extreme precipitation frequency in addition to gradual thermodynamic change in relation to ongoing global warming. In this section, we also investigate the interdecadal variability of East Asia over the period to examine the changes in the SOM frequency distribution of heavy rainfall WPs. To evaluate the long-term changes in the frequencies of occurrence, the frequency of occurrence of each WP for each year is smoothed by using a 5-yr

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

stations, with lesser attention given to multivariate procedures. Increasingly, there is a need for a broader examination of spatial structure of flood extremes. There are difficulties in extending methods based on univariate and multivariate extreme value theory to a broader spatial setting. Availability of stream gauging networks from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with records of discharge time series covering multiple decades (see section 3 for examples) provides an important data resource for

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

purposes, we also examined the eight IMPROVE II storm events (22 12-h periods; Table 1 ) from December 2001 analyzed in Medina et al. (2007) . Table 2 places the Portland seasonal precipitation accumulations for 2003–06 into a 10-yr context and indicates the respective phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). There is substantial year-to-year variability in precipitation between 2000 and 2009, with the winter season of 2004/05 representing dryer

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

be noted that the measurement periods are not uniform from one site to the next. Some sites are several decades long, while others are shorter. Also, because the COOP data are point measurements and the time of day they represent varies from site to site, the COOP data are not used here for direct verification of gridded QPF. d. QPF performance measures To assess extreme event QPFs, the POD, FAR, CSI, MAE, and bias were analyzed for precipitation events during the 2005/06 cool season. In this

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Ali Behrangi, Bisher Imam, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, Timothy J. Bellerby, and George J. Huffman

rainfall intensity estimates that nonetheless provide comprehensive spatial and temporal coverage. Given that in the latter case, precipitation is indirectly estimated from cloud forms present in frequent GEO images, attempts to combine GEO-IR estimates with the less frequent but higher-quality precipitation information from LEO-MW data has been a major research issue for more than a decade. These efforts, which will significantly benefit from the anticipated launch and operation of the National

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