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James R. Baker and Thomas F. Jordan

dependencecould be used in models of seiches or tides. Csanadyand Shaw (1980) found and analyzed the solution fordrift current caused by a suddenly applied constantwind stress, for viscosity that depends on time butnot depth, in the limit of infinitely deep water; theyuse it to describe a turbulent Ekman layer. Madsen(1977) had found a solution describing a turbulentboundary layer near the surface by using viscositythat increases linearly with depth but does notdepend on time, also for infinitely deep water

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Gary S. E. Lagerloef

T-S relations, but at therisk of introducing artificial variations at the subdivision boundaries. Second, the method should remainobjective. Third, the vertical distribution of parametersshould be taken into account. An examination of theGulf of Alaska T-S distributions (Fig. 2a) reveals thata temperature of, say, 4-C at a shallow depth is morelikely to coincide with a lower salinity, while the sametemperature at a deeper level will coincide with a highersalinity. It should also be noted that

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Nikolas O. Aksamit, Themistoklis Sapsis, and George Haller

satellite altimetry measurements, researchers actively study global ocean currents and mesoscale features in the ocean, ranging in size from 10 to 200 km ( Stewart 2008 ), in near–real time from an Eulerian perspective. These data have allowed a better understanding of the role of prominent circulation features in the deep ocean, like the Gulf Stream and the Pacific Gyre, as well as smaller coherent structures like the Agulhas rings ( Wang et al. 2015 ). In shallower waters, or at the interface of two

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E. Bouws and G. J. Komen

discussed. For a certain choice of dissipation parameters, a good balancecan be obtained. This is in agreement with the steadiness of the observed wave conditions.1. Introduction Recent interest in the modeling of wind waves onshallow water (Vincent, 1982; Sanders and Bruinsma,1983) has shown that our knowledge of the variousprocesses contributing to the evolution of the wavespectrum is still fragmentary. As in deep water, windinput, nonlinear transfer, dissipation and advectionare important, but, in

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Rui M. Ponte

DECEMBER 1989 RUI M. PONTE 1881A Simple Model for Deep Equatorial Zonal Currents Forced at Lateral Boundaries* RUI M. PONTE* *Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hold Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts(Manuscript received 13 June 1988, in final form 8 August 1989) ABSTRACT Deep lateral boundary processes (e

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W. Sturges, J. C. Evans, S. Welsh, and W. Holland

way. The model velocities are lower than those observed in the ocean, but the fundamentalidea of the ring-shedding process seems real'.rstic. These results suggest an unexpected complexity in the circulationpatterns. The flow in the deeper levels of the model consists of a rich field of vortexlike and wavelike featuresthat travel in company with the upper anticyclone. They travel to the west at a greater speed than the upperanticyclone, and they have substantial north-south motions. They fill the

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Nelson G. Hogg, Gerold Siedler, and Walter Zenk

1. Introduction The Deep Basin Experiment (DBE) of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is an international program aimed at learning more about the deep circulation of the world’s oceans through an intensive investigation of flow conditions within the Brazil Basin ( Fig. 1 ). Particular objectives are to describe and quantify the circulation within the three major water masses of the subthermocline region, to estimate rates of diapycnal fluxes within the basin, and to investigate the

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Malte F. Jansen and Louis-Philippe Nadeau

1. Introduction Changes in the deep-ocean circulation have likely been a key player in past climatic changes, and may again be important in the future (e.g., Brovkin et al. 2007 ; Lund et al. 2011 ; Ferrari et al. 2014 ; Watson et al. 2015 ; Liu et al. 2017 ). The ocean’s overturning circulation affects the uptake of heat and carbon during anthropogenic climate change, and can lead to potentially large changes in the regional climate via changes in the advection of warm waters (e

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E. D. Zaron

° latitude in water deeper than 3000 m and be more than 60 km from the coast. The uncertainty of the structure function may be computed from the expected error of the sample variance ( Casella and Berger 2002 , p. 257), where the quantity is the fourth moment of the SSH increments at lag , The structure function is shown over the full range of from 1 to 1440 h (60 days) in Fig. 2 . Because the sample error grows with signal variance, it is imperative to remove as much variance as possible before

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Andreas Münchow, Humfrey Melling, and Kelly K. Falkner

: Ingvalsen et al. 2004 ) or inadequate (e.g., Canadian Archipelago: Melling 2000 ). The release of freshwater from a reservoir profoundly impacts the dynamics of the receiving basin. Freshwater discharges into the ocean are associated with lateral differences in density and thus in pressure, which in turn induce currents termed buoyancy-driven or thermohaline by the coastal and deep-ocean communities, respectively. Rossby (1937) first realized that the steady state that results from two contacting

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