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Meng-Pai Hung, Jia-Lin Lin, Wanqiu Wang, Daehyun Kim, Toshiaki Shinoda, and Scott J. Weaver

-5AL, IPSL-5AM, MIROC-E, and MIROC-EC), the equivalent depth is still too deep, while it is too shallow in two models (CNRM-CM5 and MRI3). The equivalent depth of a wave is proportional to the effective static stability felt by the wave, which is reduced when diabatic heating compensates adiabatic cooling in the upward branch of the wave. The models that exhibit a reasonable equivalent depth are producing a large enough reduction in their effective static stability from diabatic heating, while

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Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones

essentially driven by the differential heating between the continent and ocean. In the premonsoon season, the incoming solar radiation increases the diabatic heating over the tropical continent and land–ocean contrasts initiate the monsoonal circulations. The differential heating strengthens the cross-equatorial moisture transport by the trade winds toward the continent. Thermodynamic instability increases as the onset of the rainy season approaches and remains large throughout the wet season ( Fu et al

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Edmund K. M. Chang

even at the 90% level. While our results indicate that, among CMIP5 models, horizontal resolution may not have significant impacts on either storm-track amplitude or future projection over North America, Willison et al. (2013) suggested that simulations run at high resolution (~20-km grid spacing) may be able to resolve impacts of latent heating on storm-track dynamics that cannot be resolved in these lower-resolution climate models. Whether high-resolution models may project different storm

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Justin Sheffield, Andrew P. Barrett, Brian Colle, D. Nelun Fernando, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Tong Ren, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Yolande L. Serra, Anji Seth, Jeanne M. Thibeault, Julienne C. Stroeve, Ze Yang, and Lei Yin

, thus suggesting the cyclone biases are coming from other processes than diabatic heating errors from precipitation. Table 10. Error statistics for the CMIP5 model precipitation over the northeastern United States. The mean absolute error (millimeters per season), RMSE (mm day −1 ), and mean bias (model/observed) for 14 CMIP5 models verified using the daily CPC-Unified precipitation within the black box in Fig. 10b . The mean and standard deviation of the statistics across the multimodel ensemble

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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

. Li , and D. E. Waliser , 2012 : Simulations of the eastern North Pacific intraseasonal variability in CMIP5 GCMs . J. Climate , 26 , 3489 – 3510 . Jin , F.-F. , S.-I. An , A. Timmermann , and J. Zhao , 2003 : Strong El Niño events and nonlinear dynamical heating . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 30 , 1120 , doi:10.1029/2002GL016356 . Jones , C. D. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations . Geosci. Model Dev. , 4 , 543 – 570 , doi

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