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Jeffrey M. Chagnon and Suzanne L. Gray

1. Introduction Heating and cooling due to diabatic processes result in changes to stratification and generation of flow anomalies through dynamic adjustment toward balance. Such changes are manifest as modifications to the potential vorticity (PV). The consequences of diabatic modification of PV (hereafter diabatic PV) in extratropical cyclones have been investigated in numerous contexts, including rapid cyclogenesis (e.g., Kuo et al. 1991 ; Stoelinga 1996 ; Wernli and Davies 1997

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

1. Introduction The effects of latent heat release and uptake due to the phase changes of water are known to play a key role in the development of extratropical cyclones. The earliest work on this topic demonstrated the importance of heating due to condensation ( Manabe 1956 ; Danard 1964 ), which has since been confirmed by many other studies, most recently Joos and Wernli (2012) . The diabatic role of ice processes has also been explored, although arguably to a lesser extent, and primarily

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

shown that the S1 and S3 airstreams have a very different history of relative humidity compared to S2, linked to vertical motion, the Lagrangian rates of change associated with diabatic processes are now investigated in more detail using tracers within the MetUM simulation. Figure 10 shows the median of the heating rate Dθ / Dt and the rate of change of specific humidity Dq / Dt within the airstreams. Fig . 10. Evolution of the ensemble medians of (a) heating rate, (b) Lagrangian rate of

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

needed to fully understand the importance of diabatic processes in general for cyclone intensification in summer. This article has two objectives. The first objective is to quantify the heating (calculated as the change in potential temperature following an air parcel) produced during the occurrence of two contrasting summer extratropical cyclones and assess the effects of this heating in terms of changes to the circulation around the cyclones. In contrast to Dearden et al. (2016) , the analysis is

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

by diabatic processes (those that add or remove heat from the air) such as latent heating and cooling associated with phase changes of water, fluxes of heat and moisture from the Earth’s surface, and radiative flux convergence. Key elements in diabatic processes are turbulence, convection, and cloud physics—small-scale phenomena that cannot be represented explicitly in numerical weather prediction models. They must therefore be parameterized, introducing a source of systematic uncertainty in the

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2176:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2176:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2 Hand , W. H. , N. I. Fox , and C. G. Collier , 2004 : A study of twentieth-century extreme rainfall events in the United Kingdom with implications for forecasting . Meteor. Appl. , 11 , 15 – 31 , doi: 10.1017/S1350482703001117 . 10.1017/S1350482703001117 Hardy , S. , D. M. Schultz , and G. Vaughan , 2017 : Early evolution of the 23–26 September 2012 U.K. floods: Tropical Storm Nadine and diabatic heating due to

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G. Lloyd, C. Dearden, T. W. Choularton, J. Crosier, and K. N. Bower

splintering in an NCFR accounted for a significant fraction of the ice water content (IWC) and suggested this is important in altering the precipitation budget and the distribution of latent heat release. The reader is referred to Dearden et al. (2014) for a consideration of diabatic heating and cooling rates derived from some of the microphysics data that will be presented here. In warm frontal systems Hobbs and Locatelli (1978) examined precipitation cores within the frontal rainbands and found they

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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

generates and is enhanced by latent heating associated with cloud processes. Such feedback-driven enhancement is included in our analysis but is not isolated as a separate factor. METHOD. Cyclone tracking and dataset. Following the work of Catto et al. (2010) , we apply an objective cyclone identification and tracking algorithm ( Hodges 1995 ) to fields from the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) for the winter periods (December–February) of

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