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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

TIPEX, the Huaihe River Basin Experiment (HUBEX), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiments (SCSMEX), and GAME-Tibet and some radiosonde as well as wind profile observations from Thailand, India, and Vietnam. The results show that the discrepancy between the two datasets is small for the monthly mean time scale. Therefore in the following diagnoses when NCEP–NCAR reanalysis is employed, we confine ourselves to the investigations of large-scale and long-term monthly mean diabatic heating over the TP

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

1. Introduction Many studies have focused on the adjustment of moisture and divergence analyses (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1984 , 1988 , 1991 ; Donner 1988 ; Heckley et al. 1990 ; Puri and Miller 1990 ; Puri and Davidson 1992 ; Aonashi 1993 ; Kasahara et al. 1994 ; Manobianco et al. 1994 ; Yap 1995 ; Treadon 1996 ) in order to improve precipitation forecasts. Some of these studies have used observed rain rates to directly adjust the moisture and diabatic heating profiles to

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

forcings of the hydrological cycle, such as solar radiation ( Qian et al. 2006 ). It is well established that latent heating in the atmosphere dominates the structural patterns of total diabatic heating ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a , b ) and thus there is a close relationship between the water and energy cycles in the atmosphere. Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas ( Kiehl and Trenberth 1997 ) and is responsible for the dominant feedback in the climate system ( Karl and Trenberth 2003

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