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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

pairs of rain-normalized convective and stratiform diabatic heating profiles [i.e., Q 1 or the apparent heat source; Yanai et al. (1973) ], one pair for land and one for ocean, obtained from composites of both GCE model ( Tao and Simpson 1993 ) simulations and sounding budget calculations; a single additional pair was later added for shallow heating. Using surface rainfall rates and the proportion of stratiform rain, cloud heating profiles could then be retrieved remotely from satellite or other

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

1. Introduction Rainfall production is a fundamental process within Earth’s hydrological cycle because it represents a principal forcing term in surface water budgets, and its energetics corollary, latent heating (LH), is also one of the principal sources of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heating (or cooling) results from phase changes of water; it consists of condensation/evaporation (vapor–liquid phases), deposition/sublimation (vapor–solid phases), and freezing/melting (solid

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