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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

either linear models or AGCMs, have addressed this problem. The possible role of diabatic heating or SST anomalies from different ocean basins on the PNA pattern has been diagnosed using an “influence function.” The influence function ( g ) can be interpreted as an inverse Green’s function. That is, rather than showing how the response at all locations is affected by a specified source of forcing, g shows how the forcing from all locations affects a specified response. Based on this diagnostic

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

. 9i–p ) illustrate the El Niño forcing on the Indian Ocean in this CGCM. The anomalies in the Indian Ocean induced by El Niño are noticeable beginning in the boreal fall of the developing stage of El Niño ( Figs. 9m and 9n ). A salient feature is the presence of two high SLP anomaly centers in the northern and southeastern Indian Ocean. These SLP features are consistent with the Rossby wave response to reduced diabatic heating caused by the eastward shift of deep convection ( Lau and Nath 2003

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

that on the long-term mean, the net southward volume inflow through latitude y and below a certain temperature T (which is colder than MINSST) can only upwell by “diathermal entrainment”; that is, the water must warm (cool) via diathermal heating/cooling as it upwells (downwells). This can be due either to mixing along isopycnals, or across isopycnals but, in either case, diabatic mixing processes are involved in an essential way. High eddy diffusivities (diapycnal and/or isopycnal) are

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

associated with the persistent HC and SST anomalies. Therefore, ENSO-forced anomalies in the Indian Ocean are possibly influenced by such regional air–sea feedback. Overall, the ENSO influence is to establish anomalous high surface pressure over the tropical Indian Ocean when the eastern Pacific is warmed up. This pattern may be explained by anomalous diabatic heating over the marine continent associated with the ENSO-induced precipitation shift. In response, the tropical Indian Ocean experiences a

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