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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

Miller (1948) as where the subscript η denotes differentiation along the lowest- η level, and η is the η -coordinate vertical velocity. Following Miller (1948) , Eq. (1) may be written as where and the subscript is dropped for convenience. Here is the frontogenesis produced by horizontal divergence and deformation (hereafter kinematic frontogenesis ), is the tilting frontogenesis, and is the frontogenesis associated with horizontal gradients in diabatic heating and cooling (hereafter

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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

, which has the units of specific power or specific energy production (W kg −1 or m 2 s −3 ). Taking of Eq. (A3) and switching the order of the partial derivatives in the first term on the right-hand side yields Next, we substitute , where is the three-dimensional potential temperature advection as a function of , and is the environmental diabatic heating rate as a function of . This substitution allows Eq. (A4) to be rewritten as Assuming is a continuous function, the fundamental

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

they form. DOW and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery are being used to examine the convective field. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model reanalysis using OWLeS observations is providing the 4D thermal advection and diabatic heating fields necessary to fully explore the boundary layer destabilization mechanisms. MUPS observations are also being employed to describe the surface forcing. Influence of upwind lakes. Most large field projects on LeSs were

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