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Samson M. Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Charlotte Demott, Bryce Harrop, Jian Lu, and Min-Seop Ahn

) minus (d). The effects of tropical oceanic rainfall and 850-hPa wind biases on precipitable water over tropical landmasses are shown in Fig. 3 . Excessive CMIP6 rainfall over the tropical oceans diverts moisture away from the tropical lands, weakening the moisture transport to South Asia, Africa, and the Amazon, resulting in dry biases over land regions. As the circulation biases may be induced by precipitation biases over the oceans through diabatic heating, we hypothesize that better

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Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Suzana J. Camargo, Allison A. Wing, Adam H. Sobel, Hiroyuki Murakami, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, and Eric Page

field within 200 km from the TC center between HiRAM and the other models ( Fig. 7a ). For a given stage, the HiRAM model produces more precipitation—thus, more column-integrated diabatic heating—near the center. For example, in stage 7, the mean precipitation produced by HiRAM near the center is about 13 mm h −1 , which is approximately 44% greater than that of the other models (~9 mm h −1 ). A greater amount of diabatic heating near the center would provide favorable conditions for further TC

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

) , and Adames (2017) , we can separate the pressure velocity term into four contributions, one from horizontal DSE advection , one from radiative heating , one from convective heating , and one from the DSE tendency . If we assume that perturbations in the vertical DSE gradient are much smaller than those of the background DSE gradient, we can obtain the following: where the overbar refers to time scales longer than 15 days. Note that is an adiabatic term, while and are diabatic; can be

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Stephanie A. Henderson, Eric D. Maloney, and Seok-Woo Son

atmospheric circulation response to tropical diabatic heating associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation during northern winter . J. Atmos. Sci. , 69 , 79 – 96 , doi: 10.1175/2011JAS3686.1 . 10.1175/2011JAS3686.1 Seo , K.-H. , H.-J. Lee , and D. M. W. Frierson , 2016 : Unraveling the teleconnection mechanisms that induce wintertime temperature anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere continents in response to the MJO . J. Atmos. Sci. , 73 , 3557 – 3571 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0036.1 . 10

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James F. Booth, Catherine M. Naud, and Jeff Willison

Coauthors , 2017 : The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission for science and society . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 98 , 1679 – 1695 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00306.1 Stoelinga , M. T. , 1996 : A potential vorticity-based study on the role of diabatic heating and friction in a numerically simulated baroclinic cyclone . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 124 , 849 – 874 ,<0849:APVBSO>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1022:SAMOTN>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1022:SAMOTN>2.0.CO;2 Jiang , X. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Vertical diabatic heating structure of the MJO: Intercomparison between recent reanalyses and TRMM estimates . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 3208 – 3223 , . 10.1175/2011MWR3636.1 Jiang , X. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations . J. Geophys. Res

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

pp. 10.1007/978-3-642-13914-7 Liebmann , B. , and C. A. Smith , 1996 : Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 1275 – 1277 . Lin , H. , 2009 : Global extratropical response to diabatic heating variability of the Asian summer monsoon . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 2697 – 2713 , . 10.1175/2009JAS3008.1 Lin , H. , and G. Brunet , 2018 : Extratropical response to the MJO

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Toward a Systematic Evaluation of Warm Conveyor Belts in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Models. Part I: Predictor Selection and Logistic Regression Model

Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams

moisture supply in the warm sector (e.g., Field and Wood 2007 ; Boutle et al. 2011 ; Schäfler and Harnisch 2015 ; Berman and Torn 2019 ; Dacre et al. 2019 ). Overall, the latent heating increases the potential temperature of the air parcels on average by 20 K ( Eckhardt et al. 2004 ; Madonna et al. 2014b ). Below and close to the level of maximum latent heating, a cyclonic potential vorticity (PV) anomaly is produced, which may affect the subsequent life cycle of the associated midlatitude low

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

fluxes and greater rainfall amounts (and therefore diabatic heating) in the inner-core regions of TCs in HiRAM compared to AM2.5. This is consistent with our analysis, in which the surface flux feedback was notably stronger in HiRAM than in AM2.5, both at the same stage in the TC life cycle and at the same intensity. The radiative feedback was found to be slightly stronger in HiRAM, although the difference was small compared to the difference in surface fluxes. AM2.5 and FLOR differ only in that FLOR

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Horel and Wallace 1981 ) and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI; Annamalai et al. 2014 ). Recognizing that equatorial Pacific precipitation and associated diabatic heating anomalies are fundamental to this framework, and that in regions of weak horizontal temperature gradients such as the tropical oceans, moist static energy (MSE) variations are primarily due to moisture variations and have a close association with precipitation ( Neelin and Held 1987 ; Bretherton

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