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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

the concentric convection at the 40–50-km radius, possibly signifying the subsequent decay of Patricia. The updraft in the eyewall lifts warm and moist air near the sea surface to higher levels, resulting in the condensation and latent heat release near the eyewall that significantly contributes to the TC intensification via diabatic heating. Therefore, following the TC secondary circulation in Figs. 13 and 14a–i show the azimuthally averaged total condensate (shaded) and diabatic heating rate

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the vortex can be resistant to the environment shear to some extent. Reasor et al. (2004) argued that the tilt asymmetry of the vortex would be damped by radiation of sheared vortex Rossby waves. Recent studies have also identified a reduction in vortex tilt under moderate shear preceding the TC intensification (e.g., Miyamoto and Nolan 2018 ; Rios-Berrios et al. 2018 ). Moreover, the diabatic heating and consequent secondary circulation in TCs are thought to greatly enhance that resistance

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

hydrostatic balance in a TC) and suitable boundary conditions, Ertel’s PV can be inverted to recover the balanced mass and wind fields ( Schubert and Hack 1983 ; Schubert and Alworth 1987 ). It can be shown in the steady state, above the frictional boundary layer, that the axisymmetric diabatic heating and PV become locked with one another ( Hausman et al. 2006 ). The emergent structure during TC intensification within this framework is characterized by a “hollow tower” of PV where the maximum PV is

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

hurricane center position. (b) As in (a), but using the flight-level observations for verification. Latent heat release in the eyewall is well known to significantly impact the evolution of TC intensity through its effect on the development of the warm core ( Halverson et al. 2006 ). Therefore, following the diagnostics on the TC secondary circulation in Figs. 9 – 11 , Fig. 13 shows the azimuthally averaged diabatic heating rate and secondary circulation for all experiments and their differences at

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

effects of radiation on TC intensity can be discussed using a modified form of the Eliassen equation ( Eliassen 1952 ) that describes the balanced response in the transverse secondary circulation to diabatic heating. Within the Eliassen framework, local sources of radiative heating and cooling lead to a modified secondary circulation that removes the diabatic anomalies and returns the system to gradient wind and hydrostatic balance. This framework is complementary to the Carnot engine perspective in

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the horizontal feature of the descending inflow in Fig. 11 at three different heights and at t = 66 and 42 h, respectively. To show descending inflow clearly, we use solid contour in Fig. 11 to represent downdraft, while the wind vector indicates radial wind. The shading in Fig. 11 is diabatic heating rate. It is clear that the diabatic cooling (blue shading in Fig. 11 ) corresponds very well with the downdraft (contours in Fig. 11 ). Actually, the diabatic heating field looks more like

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

to latent heating within the eyewall. This response was more pronounced later in the period when the vortex grew upward and inertial stability increased in the lower stratosphere, where static stability was large. Zhang and Chen (2012) likewise argued that increasing inertial stability concentrated downdrafts in the highly stable lower stratosphere, leading to strong adiabatic warming in this layer. In numerical simulations, the upper-tropospheric subsidence appears to be related to a narrow

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

the warning position. Since the RMW is at too large of a radius (e.g., Fig. 13a ), that frictional inflow and ascent will also be at too large a radius, and the associated diabatic heating in the forecast will tend to lower the surface pressure at that larger radius, which will weaken the pressure gradient at the center and thus decrease the intensity ( V max ) for several hours. Only after the heating inside the RMW leads to a contraction and more realistic storm structure with a smaller RMW

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

of a synoptic-scale anticyclone that exists above the level of maximum outflow, a decrease in height of the level of maximum radial outflow with time resulting in a “remnant” diabatically generated remnant upper-level anticyclone as the outflow descends, or some other process. Composites of V r , inertial stability, and Γ in radius–pressure coordinates for all intensifying ( Figs. 8a,b ) and nonintensifying and weakening ( Figs. 8c,d ) TCs are also examined. The level of maximum is fairly

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