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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction To the first order, the atmospheric general circulation redistributes energy and balances the horizontal and vertical gradients of diabatic heating. Since the earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from the surface, convective processes are required to maintain the troposphere close to neutral stratification. On the large scale, the heating gradient between the tropics and extratropics is balanced by the poleward transport of the heat of the general circulation. However, the

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

McBride 1989 ; Lin and Johnson 1996a , b ; Schumacher et al. 2007 ). Retrieval of latent heating profiles from satellite measurements is also a major research topic of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Tao et al. 2006 , 2007 ). Latent heating is the dominant component of total diabatic heating in the tropics during convective periods. The total diabatic heating and drying can be estimated as the residuals of heat and moisture

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

). It is noted that positive heating prevails during most of the 6-month period in the EC models regardless of the MJO phases. In contrast, diabatic cooling is evident in a large portion of troposphere during the undisturbed phases of the MJO, and it is also dominant in the PBL in both of TRMM estimates. This PBL cooling is associated with both radiation and stratiform cloud processes below the melting level as to be shown later. Additionally, the maximum heating centers tend to appear in the middle

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

1. Introduction Diabatic heating Q 1 plays a central role in driving atmospheric (ATM) variability on a wide range of time and space scales. The vertical structure of Q 1 has been shown to influence the atmosphere on scales ranging from the life cycle of individual mesoscale convective systems (e.g., Houze 1982 , 1989 ; Mapes and Houze 1995 ) and the evolution of extratropical cyclones ( Weaver 1999 ) to the propagation speed of tropical intraseasonal oscillations (e.g., Lau and Peng

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

; in the latter case the weights to the models are 1/ N , where N is the number of models in the suite. It was shown by Stefanova and Krishnamurti (2002) and Chakraborty and Krishnamurti (2006) that superensemble performs better than bias-removed ensemble mean forecast for short-to-medium range as well as for seasonal time-scale predictions. 3. Satellite-based heating rates The observational estimates for the vertical profile diabatic heating rate (Q1) were derived from the TRMM Microwave

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

. This result is consistent with results of Brown and Zhang (1997) , Redelsperger et al. (2002) , Takemi et al. (2004) , and Takayabu et al. (2006) . In this study, we analyze the three-dimensional distributions of Q 1 − Q R obtained from the spectral latent heating (SLH) data, where Q 1 is the apparent heat source invented by Yanai et al. (1973) and Q R is the radiative heating. Utilizing field campaign soundings, Schumacher et al. (2007 , 2008) presented total diabatic heating

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

1. Introduction The latent heat released or consumed during phase changes of water substance is a major component of the atmospheric energy budget, and one that dominates other diabatic processes in the deep tropics (see Newell et al. 1969 ; Schaack et al. 1990 ). Latent heating is also responsible for the creation of available potential energy, one mechanism by which convective clouds can interact with the larger-scale atmospheric circulations of their environment ( Nitta 1970 , 1972

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

1. Introduction The release of latent heating (LH) during the formation of precipitation is of immense consequence to the nature of large- and small-scale atmospheric circulations, particularly in the tropics where various large-scale tropical modes controlled by LH persist and vary on a global scale. Latent heat release and its variations are without doubt the most important diabatic processes within the atmosphere, and thus play a central role in the earth’s water cycle. Latent heating is

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

vertical resolution (250 m at nadir) and quasi-vertical beam of the PR allow it to identify a bright band for a higher percentage of all echoes than can a quasi-horizontally scanning ground radar ( Schumacher and Houze 2000 ). Therefore, the classification between convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) has become more straightforward, utilizing the presence of the bright band ( Awaka et al. 1998 , 2007 , 2009 ). Because differences in diabatic heating profiles exist

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is a dominant feature of monsoon regions of the world. Within the largest monsoon system—the Asian monsoon—the Tibetan Plateau generates significant, large-scale, diurnally varying circulations, vertical motion, and diabatic heating ( Luo and Yanai 1984 ; Nitta 1983 ; Krishnamurti and Kishtawal 2000 ). The North American summer monsoon system, which develops in response to heating over the elevated terrain of Mexico and the western United States

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