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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

). This diabatic heating sits at the nexus of mesoscale and intraseasonal-scale interactions in the tropics. The diabatic heating arising from cloud processes may be broadly categorized as convective or stratiform in origin, each of which have fundamentally different characteristic vertical latent heating profiles ( Ahmed et al. 2016 ). Deep convective precipitation is associated with heating throughout the troposphere, while deep stratiform precipitation from thunderstorm anvils is characterized by

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

) rainfall anomalies that represent enhanced (suppressed) deep convection and diabatic heating (cooling) anomalies occurring over the Maritime Continent and equatorial western Pacific (western equatorial Indian Ocean) as seen in Fig. 3d . Westerly and easterly wind anomalies lie to the west and east of the cyclonic wind anomaly pair, respectively. These anomalies represent the classical Matsuno–Gill pattern ( Matsuno 1966 ; Gill 1980 ), where diabatic heating anomalies over the western equatorial

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

levels. Out of 27 GCMs, 20 are uncoupled models, 6 are fully coupled models, and 1 is a partially coupled model. Their detailed descriptions are available in Jiang et al. (2015) . Daily data generated from 6-hourly outputs were used in this study. Not all simulations provided the temperature tendency terms. For fair comparisons among all models, diabatic heating is estimated as the residual of the potential temperature equation following Yanai et al. (1973) , which is known as the apparent heat

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

tropical diabatic heating associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation during northern winter . J. Atmos. Sci. , 69 , 79 – 96 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JAS3686.1 . 10.1175/2011JAS3686.1 Seo , K.-H. , H.-J. Lee , and D. M. W. Frierson , 2016 : Unraveling the teleconnection mechanisms that induce wintertime temperature anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere continents in response to the MJO . J. Atmos. Sci. , 73 , 3557 – 3571 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0036.1 . 10.1175/JAS

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

those in the FLAT and AQUA experiments, respectively, which are also plotted in (c) for comparison. The area within the black lines indicates the westerly wind zone. Differences within the green lines are significant at the 5% level. The cross section of apparent heat source (Q1; i.e., estimated diabatic heating defined as the residual of thermodynamic equation by plugging observed atmospheric motion and temperature into the equation; Yanai et al. 1973 ) and vertical overturning circulation changes

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1987 ; Neelin et al. 1987 ). In the wave dynamics theories, the MJO is first interpreted as viscous Kelvin waves by Chang (1977) and further elaborated by Lau and Peng (1987) as moist Kelvin–Rossby waves with an instability arising from the interaction between convective heating and large-scale wave motion, known as the wave-conditional instability of the second kind (wave-CISK). This convective coupling reduces the effective static stability and thus slows down the propagation speed of Kelvin

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

is barotropic energy conversion from ISO flow to higher-frequency eddies. A more challenging aspect of MJO–HFW interaction is HFW feedback to MJO. It has been shown that HFW may exert an upscale feedback to summer ISO through nonlinear modulation of MJO-scale latent heat flux and diabatic heating ( Zhou and Li 2010 ; Hsu and Li 2011 ). Another upscale feedback process is through eddy momentum transport (e.g., Hsu and Li 2011 ; Liu and Wang 2013 ). Most previous studies concentrated either on

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

, 22 , 748 – 766 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2637.1 . 10.1175/2008JCLI2637.1 Loeb , N. G. , D. A. Rutan , S. Kato , and W. Wang , 2014 : Observing interannual variations in Hadley circulation atmospheric diabatic heating and circulation strength . J. Climate , 27 , 4139 – 4158 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00656.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00656.1 Loeb , N. G. , H. Wang , A. Cheng , S. Kato , J. Fasullo , K.-M. Xu , and R. P. Allan , 2016 : Observational

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

is mainly due to the increased offshore extent of both the land- and sea-breeze anomalies during the MJO active phase. This interesting pattern may reflect a weaker density current (due to the suppressed radiational cooling over the land during the convective envelope) and an increased seaward extent of the diurnal gravity wave (which depends on, among other things, the vertical scale of the diabatic heating and the background wind). On both sides of Sumatra, the heaviest rainfall occurs in MJO

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction As a dominant source of latent heating, the tropical Maritime Continent (MC) exerts profound influence over global circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Krishnamurti et al. 1973 ). The persistence of upward motion here likely owes to its unique abundance of land, sea, and coastline: the resulting combination of moisture availability from a warm sea surface and strong diurnal solenoidal circulations ensures daily thunderstorm activity, and hence strong tropospheric heating in the mean

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