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Yuya Takane, Hiroaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Jin Katagi, Osamu Nagafuchi, Koyomi Nakazawa, Naoki Kaneyasu, and Yoshihiro Miyakami

wind (Fig. 16 in Takane and Kusaka 2011 ) was the dominant factor. This foehnlike wind is similar to type II except that the temperature is more greatly increased by diabatic heating with subgrid-scale turbulent diffusion and sensible heat flux from the ground ( Takane and Kusaka 2011 ; Takane et al. 2015 ). In other words, the foehnlike wind has the features of a sum of the traditional dry foehn effect with adiabatic heating plus dry-diabatic heating (sensible heat flux) from the ground surface

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Feimin Zhang, Chenghai Wang, and Zhaoxia Pu

al. 2018 ; Shou et al. 2019 ). Most of these previous studies were either based on statistical analysis using datasets from different reanalyses generated by general circulation models (GCMs), synoptic weather maps, and satellite retrievals, or based on numerical simulations using idealized frameworks or coarse model resolutions. It has been recognized that surface diabatic and condensational latent heating, topographical effects of the TP, large-scale circulation such as atmospheric oscillation

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Sarah M. Borg, Steven M. Cavallo, and David D. Turner

these severe events. Many previous studies have shown that TPVs are heavily influenced by radiation ( Cavallo and Hakim 2009 , 2010 , 2012 , 2013 ), with a variety of case studies and simulation-based composites used to determine this. Cavallo and Hakim (2009) set the stage for a composite study of TPVs by using a case study to show that radiation and latent heating were the prime diabatic factors in TPV evolution. A follow-up study using model output from 568 TPV cases led to the currently

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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

that may favor convective development. Since the work done by Anthes (1984) is focused on the vertical velocities forced by diabatic fluxes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the absence of ambient flow, we extend our analysis to the mechanism through which weak ambient flow can favor development of convection. Since most of the above studies are observational, numerical, or mixed observational and numerical, with the exception of Anthes’ work, we approach the problem using an analytical

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Frank H. Ruggiero, Keith D. Sashegyi, Rangarao V. Madala, and Sethu Raman

be maintained through the analysis andinitialization steps. One way to accomplish this is byusing adiabatic initialization. It is the purpose of thispaper to describe and present test results from a technique to diabatically initialize the U.S. Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System (NORAPS) model from stratiform precipitation. This technique uses as input observed precipitation, cloud-topheights, and analyzed thermodynamic and kinematicfields. The latent: heating is distributed

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

external heating effects (forced from outside tropical ocean areas) play an important role in triggering El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. These results suggest that more accurate vertical diabatic heating profiles would improve model simulations, likely leading to further understanding of the general circulation and the cause of ENSO variations. The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) is the most recent field experiment that

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Edward B. Rodgers, Simon W. Chang, and Harold F. Pierce

., Lanham, Maryland(Manuscript received 17 February 1993, in final form 19 July 1993) ABSTRACT Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observations were used to examine the spatial and temporalchanges of the precipitation characteristics of tropical cyclones. SSM/I observations were also combined withthe results of a tropical cyclone numerical model to examine the role of inner-core diabatic heating in subsequentintensity changes of tropical cyclones. Included in the SSM

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Jianyong Liu, Shunan Yang, Leiming Ma, Xuwei Bao, Dongliang Wang, and Difeng Xu

for all domains. Recently, a model self-bogusing vortex was constructed by cycle runs using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to provide high-resolution initial conditions for TC simulation by Nguyen and Chen (2011) . This model self-bogusing vortex initialization scheme showed significant improvement in terms of thermodynamic structures of the vortex and TC intensity forecast. For the third kind of TC initialization, because of the importance of diabatic heating for TC forecast

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Dean D. Churchill

experiment in West Africa. Part II: Water budget. Mort. Wea. Rev., 117, 728-744. - , P. Amayenc, G. Scialon, and J. Testud, 1987: A tropical squall line observed during the COPT 81 experiment in West Africa. Part I: Kinematic structure inferred from dual-Doppler radar data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 670-694.Churchill, D. D., and R. A. Houze, Jr., 1991: Effects of radiation and turbulence on the diabatic heating and water budget of the stratiform region of a tropical cloud cluster. J. Atmos. Sci., 48

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Jielun Sun

surface); that is, Total energy conservation (W m −2 ) expressed in Eq. (1) reflects the balance between total energy changes or the rate of total energy inside the system on the left-hand side (lhs) and the net heating or diabatic thermal forcing and the rate of mechanical work done to the system on the right-hand side (rhs). The rate of the mechanic work consists of the rates of the work done by pressure gradients ( is the wind vector and p is the external or environmental pressure on the

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